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bibliographic essay [Posted here on 31 January 2002, with kind permission of the author and CHOICE: current reviews for 4+ Amazing Letter academic libraries (Middletown, CT: Association of College and Brochure. Flyer Royalty Stock Photos Research Libraries) July/August 2001, Vol. 38, No.11/12, pp. 1899-1909 ( copyright by the American Library Association )] Author's Note: The following essay was written for Choice, the 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |, journal of the Blue Cross Denies Consumers Agent, American Library Association, and includes books in | the English language only. Clearly there are many more excellent works in other languages in the history of cartography, which is truly an international field. Interested readers should search the bibliographies of Imago Mundi for references to these, or consult the bibliographies on the Education pages of the Groupe des Cartothcaires of 45 Free Why Sop Is Used Standard, LIBER. 4+ Amazing Letter! This essay provides an over-view of Create Affinity, recent developments in Resignation | the history of cartography, beginning with general works and 5 Sponsorship & Sponsorship Templates resources, followed by an account of the age of discoveries, a watershed in the history of maps.

The study then looks back to the precursors of the 4+ Amazing, medieval and Create Affinity classical periods, reviews non-Western maps and the colonial period, and concludes with the technological revolution in 4+ Amazing mapmaking of the Tefl: Interview Skills Evaluation Form, present time. Most works are drawn from the last fifteen years, which have been dominated by the publication of the multivolume The History of Cartography , edited by J. Brian Harley and David Woodward. Maps are now such commonplace objects and Letter geographical forms so standardized in our minds that it is hard to imagine a world in Event Invitations which this was not so. For example, we recognize the shape of a familiar landmass like Africa, whether it appears on 4+ Amazing Resignation | a map, a coffee mug or on the back of Flyer Template. Free Photos, a teenager's partly shaved head. When our standard view is challenged, we are disturbed and angry. Showing the Australian map of the world with south on top provokes a roar of outrage from a college history class: Turn it right side up! But there is a history of 4+ Amazing Letter |, cartography, a history of the development of 5 Sponsorship Letter, mapping, and it is 4+ Amazing Letter |, not a simple story of Example, forward progress. And there will be a history of 4+ Amazing Resignation |, future mapping, which may take forms as yet unimagined by us. The field of the history of cartography has been transformed in the past two decades. Resume - Template! A map has been traditionally defined by geographers as a representation of things in Resignation space, a definition that implies a certain level of physical correspondence.

A new definition, according to Harley and Woodward, reads thus: Maps are graphic representations that facilitate a spatial understanding of things, concepts, conditions, processes, or events in Tefl: Interview Skills the human world. This definition takes one away from seeing maps as objective representations of physical space into 4+ Amazing | considering them as human documents with all their attendant biases and Letter & Sponsorship Proposal Templates failings. Such artifacts as diagrams of imaginary cosmographies, landscape paintings, and 4+ Amazing Letter | mental maps may now be considered maps. Blue Stock Photos! The working out of this definition is seen in its widest form in Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian and Pacific Societies (volume 2, book 3 of History of Resignation, Cartography ), which discusses the dreaming diagrams of the Critical, Australian aborigines, the cosmographic calendars of the Mayans, and ritual sand paintings of the Navajos. These works are not maps in the traditional sense, but they do incorporate spatial relationships and individual places, often in 4+ Amazing Resignation | terms of Critical Analysis Business, spiritual significance. Traditionally, the Resignation Letter |, history of Business Brochure. Flyer Stock Photos, cartography had been dominated by geographers and Letter was viewed as a triumphal march toward the increasingly accurate, measured maps of the present. Letter Proposal Templates! Such a story culminates in the use of precise tools, aerial surveillance, satellite mapping, and Geographic Information Systems. The maps of the 4+ Amazing Resignation, past tended to be discounted as crude and Critical | Tutor2u clumsy approximations of real space.

Not that these early map historians were slipshod-despite the changes in the orientation of the field, classics, such as books by Letter Raymond Beazley ( The Dawn of California Consumers, Modern Geography ), George Kimble ( Geography in Letter the Middle Ages ), and John Wright ( The Geographical Lore of the | Tutor2u, Time of the 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |, Crusades ), still have much to teach us in How To Create For Presentations their careful examinations of individual maps. As historians of cartography have moved away from geographical accuracy as the chief quality of a map, they examine instead maps in 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter themselves. Tefl: Interview Evaluation Form! What was the mapmaker intending to 4+ Amazing Letter, show? Is it possible that measurement was not particularly important and that some other consideration shaped the map in question? Editors Harley and Create Woodward address these questions in Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and | Medieval Europe and Free 45 Free Sop Template Why Sop the Mediterranean (volume 1 of Resignation |, The History of Cartography ), which appeared in 1987 and pulls together the research of many scholars of the Brochure. Flyer Royalty Free Stock, preceding decades. |! Its effect can hardly be underestimated, judging from the burgeoning research that has followed its publication. Volume 2 is published in three parts: Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and Tom's Interview Skills Evaluation Form South Asian Societies, Cartography in Traditional East and Southeast Asian Societies , and Resignation | the book on - Template traditional non-European societies cited above. Resignation! Volume 3, on the cartography of the European Renaissance, will be issued shortly. Subsequent volumes will take the history up to Business Invitations & Corporate, the present time.

The field of the history of cartography has attracted scholars from Resignation |, a number of academic fields. Art historians, literary theorists, and 5 Sponsorship Proposal political historians have joined geographers in studying and analyzing maps of the Resignation Letter, past. Art and Anthem Cross Denies Agent Cartography , a selection of essays edited by Woodward, is a particularly interesting illustration of the cross-fertilization of academic fields. Letter |! At present there is no comprehensive one-volume history of Proposal, cartography. Leo Bagrow's classic History of Cartography , enlarged and revised by R. A. Skelton in 1966, was the last attempt, and now the multivolume History of Resignation |, Cartography , cited above, appears to Business Event Invitations Invites, be its replacement. The best brief introduction is by Resignation Norman J. 5 Sponsorship! W. Thrower, who recently published a new edition of his Maps and Men , having changed the title to Maps Civilization . Thrower, a geographer and cartographer, is most insightful on 4+ Amazing Resignation | the modern period, where his mastery of the techniques of mapmaking is Flyer Stock Photos, supreme.

The book includes a helpful appendix with a glossary of Resignation Letter, mapping terms. How To Create Diagrams For Presentations! Peter Whitfield's The Image of the World: 20 Centuries of World Maps is 4+ Amazing Letter, less scholarly but has an excellent selection of color illustrations. John Snyder's Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Free Why Sop Is Used Standard, Map Projections is a general book about Resignation |, a more specialized subject. Snyder deals with the Blue Cross Denies Covered California, eternal problem of representing a more or less spherical Earth on a plane surface and describes various solutions that have been found. This is an 4+ Amazing Letter, excellent introduction to an important subject in cartography, since the type of projection chosen can radically alter the appearance and meaning of the map. Catherine Delano-Smith and Roger Kain's English Maps: A History serves as a good overview of the field, although its subject is limited to maps made in Anthem Blue Cross Covered England or for 4+ Amazing Letter English use. The authors offer a comprehensive view of mapmaking and map use from the Free 45 Free Sop Template, Middle Ages to the early twentieth century, putting maps into their cultural and 4+ Amazing political context. For reference there is the useful Cartographical Innovations: An International Handbook of Mapping Terms to & Corporate Invites, 1900 , edited by 4+ Amazing Helen Wallis and 5 Sponsorship & Sponsorship Proposal Templates Arthur Robinson.

The book is made up of a series of 4+ Amazing Resignation, brief essays on the terms, each followed by a bibliography. Interview Form! General categories include types of maps, maps of human occupations and Resignation activities, maps of Business Blue Royalty Stock Photos, natural phenomena, reference systems and geodetic concepts, symbolism, techniques and 4+ Amazing Letter | media, methods of duplication, and Tom's Skills Form atlases. Individual essay topics include such subjects as satirical maps, wind roses, and 4+ Amazing Resignation longitude. Another good reference book is the Free Sop Template. 45 Free Sop Template Why Sop Is Used, regularly updated Who's Who in | the History of Cartography , edited by Mary Alice Lowenthal. Free Sop Template. Is Used Standard! Primarily a guide to 4+ Amazing Letter, people working in - Template the field, it also includes a useful introductory section, including a general bibliography, a list of important research centers and map collections, and a list of Letter, journals. Business Brochure. Blue Template. Stock! Since the Resignation |, history of cartography is an international field, one expects many of these sources to be in languages other than English.

Top of page. The flagship journal in the field is the venerable Imago Mundi , founded in 1935 and now into its 53rd volume. Published annually, it includes scholarly articles, book reviews, an annual bibliography, and a calendar of Path Business, events in the field, such as lectures, conferences and 4+ Amazing Letter | exhibits. 5 Sponsorship Letter! A list of the contents throughout its history can be found at the Imago Mundi Web site. Among other useful journals is Terrae Incognitae , published by the Society for Letter | the History of Discoveries. It emphasizes the discoveries themselves, but many of the articles concern historical maps. The product of the Smith Center at the Newberry Library in Chicago, Mapline carries brief articles along with news about lecture series and information on Business Event Invitations the library's collections.

The Washington Map Society publishes The Portolan , which is issued three times a year, and includes longer articles and an excellent annual bibliography. A more popular publication is the bimonthly Mercator's World , which absorbed the journal Map Collector in 1996. It publishes nonacademic (i.e., no footnotes) articles on a wide range of Resignation Letter, map-related topics, with color illustrations. Skills Evaluation Form! Though the publication has an impressive board of directors, the articles are not always carefully edited-caveat lector! Mercator's World is 4+ Amazing Letter |, directed at collectors as well as scholars and contains information on map auctions and sales, an Blue California Agent, important inclusion since map collectors play a significant role in the field of the 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter, history of cartography. Some are scholars in Resume Example their own right, and 4+ Amazing Letter | some have generously supported the academic world with lecture series, fellowships, and gifts to map libraries.

The main discussion list on the Internet is MapHist , founded in General Resume - Template 1994 and | monitored by David Cobb, librarian at Harvard University. Copies of the complete discussions on CD-ROM, with convenient index, are sold periodically. Business & Corporate Event! . The list broadcasts announcements of conferences, fellowships, and new books, as well as lively debates on map-related topics. Participants include map dealers, librarians, college and 4+ Amazing university professors, graduate students, and amateur enthusiasts. Tom's Tefl: Interview Skills Evaluation Form! The Web has two principal gatekeeper sites that provide links to Resignation |, many other sources. The first, Map History/History of Cartography, is established at the Institute of Blue Template., Historical Research at Letter | the University of London. This site includes a general introduction to 5 Sponsorship & Sponsorship Proposal, the subject as well as news and Letter guides to 5 Sponsorship Letter Templates, library collections and map dealers. 4+ Amazing Resignation |! A recently added link directs one to 5 Sponsorship Proposal, articles and Letter | books posted on Letter & Sponsorship Proposal Templates the Web. There is 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter, also an e-journal, MapForum , which has published ten issues so far. The other site, Top of page. Skills Evaluation! New theoretical approaches to 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter, the history of cartography can be found in Anthem Denies Covered Agent The History of 4+ Amazing |, Cartography , particularly Harley's opening essay in volume 1. Harley is also the author of Maps, Knowledge and Power in The Iconography of Create Affinity, Landscape , edited by Denis Cosgrove and Stephen Daniels.

Here he makes clear the way that maps, rather than being objective sources of information, can be used to 4+ Amazing Letter, establish control, a theme now being expanded on by writers in specialized historical fields. Books by Mark Monmonier ( How to Lie with Maps, Drawing the Free 45 Free Why Sop Is Used Standard, Line ) apply these ideas with mostly modern examples, written in 4+ Amazing | a breezy, popular style. Mappings , edited by Denis Cosgrove, includes a selection of articles across the Sop Template. Why Sop Is Used Standard, historical spectrum, mostly incorporating postmodernist theory. Soon to 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |, appear in English translation from the University of Chicago Press is Christian Jacob's L'Empire des Cartes: Approche thorique de la cartographie travers l'histoire [Editor's update, May 2008 - the details are: Christian Jacob, The Sovereign Map: Theoretical Approaches in Cartography throughout History . Translated by Tom Conley. 5 Sponsorship & Sponsorship Templates! Edited by 4+ Amazing Resignation | Edward H. Dahl. (University of How To Affinity Diagrams For Presentations, Chicago Press, 2006)]. Trained as a classicist, Jacob ranges over 4+ Amazing Letter |, the entire field of cartography, drawing examples from every period of Path, history. The term mapping is sometimes used so broadly by literary scholars in particular that a geographer would hardly recognize his original artifact. Resignation! An example is Path Analysis | Tutor2u, Tom Conley's The Self-Made Map . This work, set in 4+ Amazing Letter | early modern France, does discuss such cartographers as Oronce Fin, but it ranges into the cartographic writing of Rabelais, the Templates, arrangement of Resignation |, words on General Resume a page in printed texts, and | the design of Invitations & Corporate Invites, capital letters. An event that did much to Letter, establish a new view of map history was an exhibition titled The Power of Maps, by the Smithsonian Institution in 1992-93 and curated by Lucy Fellowes and Denis Wood.

The exhibition assembled an impressive collection of maps from various cultures and periods-from stick maps of the Anthem Denies Covered California Consumers Agent, Marshall Islands and Letter | medieval manuscript maps to road maps of Business Blue Flyer Free Photos, North Carolina-and provided a showcase for new techniques of mapping. A memorable display was an animated sequence showing the sea bottom beneath the 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |, polar ice sheets. There was no exhibition catalog, but Wood produced a book with the same title, describing how maps are often confused with reality, when in fact a map's selection of places and symbols transforms reality. General Example! Unfortunately, the Letter |, book, a rambling personal essay, is poorly illustrated, always a drawback for Free 45 Free Sop Template Why Sop a book about maps. The postmodernist approach of 4+ Amazing Letter, Wood and others was criticized as an Business Brochure. Template. Royalty Free Stock Photos, oversimplification by Jeremy Black in Maps and Politics . The crucial event in 4+ Amazing Resignation European map history was the discovery of America and the simultaneous exploration of Blue Cross Denies, Africa and Asia. Resignation Letter |! European geographers and Example - Template mapmakers found it necessary to revise their view of the world. In the preceding century, several forces had come together (the rediscovery of 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter, Ptolemy's work, the refinement of Brochure. Flyer Free, nautical maps, the improvement of measuring techniques) to give intimations of a more scientific approach to 4+ Amazing |, cartography.

Thus, as new lands were discovered, mapmakers were able to fit them quickly into the world picture. This exploratory energy continued into the 20th century, when, for example, the Northwest Passage was finally navigated and mapped. Peter Whitfield's New Found Lands , after a brief account of ancient and Critical Path Analysis | Tutor2u Business medieval explorers, swings into Letter high gear in the fifteenth century, carrying the Business Event Invites, story up to the end of the 4+ Amazing |, nineteenth century. An interesting insight into the progress of Tom's Interview Skills Evaluation Form, discovery can be found in Lost Islands by Henry Stommel. 4+ Amazing Resignation! He describes the Anthem Blue Cross Denies Consumers Agent, persistence of nonexistent navigational hazards for Resignation Letter years and introduces us to the fascinating 1856 catalog Rodgers' Register of Doubtful Dangers. Harley's Maps and Path Analysis | Tutor2u Business the Columbian Encounter accompanied an exhibition commemorating the year 1492. Harley also produced a video of the Resignation |, same title, which drives home the point that Western maps were a factor in the domination and Invitations & Corporate elimination of Native American cultures, overwhelming Native mapping traditions and place-names, and legitimizing conquest. Walter Mignolo makes the same point in Resignation Letter | The Darker Side of the Renaissance , a book emphasizing the Anthem Cross Covered Consumers, irrational and 4+ Amazing Letter | self-justifying myths that lurked behind the modern and Critical reasonable facade of the Renaissance.

Two chapters specifically discuss the mapping of Resignation |, non-European countries by their colonizers. The invention of Resume, printing, which occurred almost at the same time, also had a great effect on Resignation maps, which could now be widely distributed with their uniformity maintained. Event Invitations & Corporate Event Invites! The simultaneous spread of 4+ Amazing Letter |, literacy meant that more people were capable of reading maps, and a market for their sale emerged. Resume! Five Centuries of Map Printing , edited by David Woodward, is 4+ Amazing Resignation, a technical overview, issued on the 500th anniversary of the Free Why Sop Is Used Standard, first printed map. Woodward observes that, while map printing led to an explosion in map availabil-ity, the |, process also limited the mapmaker in such areas as color and pictorial elements. Excellent studies of Create, early printed maps include Rodney W. Shirley's Mapping of the World: Early Printed World Maps, 1472-1700 , and Resignation Letter Tony Campbell's Earliest Printed Maps, 1472-1500 . General Resume Example! The first is a cartobibliography of maps of the world, while the Resignation Letter, latter includes all types of maps. Cartobibliographies are organized with an Business Invitations Event, entry for | each map. In Shirley's work, for example, each entry includes the Analysis | Tutor2u, name of the mapmaker (if known), the place and date of publication, the 4+ Amazing, size, the title of the book, a brief description, and Anthem Blue Covered California Agent a photograph. Resignation |! These are indispensable tools for the researcher. Sea Charts of the Early Explorers , a beautifully illustrated volume by Michel Mollat du Jourdin and Free Sop Template Why Sop Is Used Monique de la Roncire, begins with the first appearance of nautical charts in Letter | the West in the thirteenth century and shows how they were modified up through the seventeenth century. R.A.

Skelton's Explorers' Maps: Chapters in the Cartographic Record of Geographical Discovery is an older, but still informative book. Tom's Interview Form! Skelton closely links the various voyages to the maps that were used and those that resulted. His notes and observations on Resignation Letter | the individual maps are always valuable. The European voyages of the 5 Sponsorship Letter Templates, sixteenth century led to 4+ Amazing Resignation |, an explosion in Resume - Template map production, which suddenly became a profitable business rather than a scholarly avocation. Two of the Letter, most famous sixteenth-century mapmakers, Abraham Ortelius (d.

1598) and Gerard Mercator (d. 1594), recently celebrated quadricentennials, which gave rise to a spate of conferences and commemorative volumes. Ortelius's work is described in essays written by Marcel van der Broecke and others in Abraham Ortelius and Example - Template the First Atlas . 4+ Amazing Resignation |! Gerhard Mercator's The Mercator Atlas of Europe , edited by Marcel Watelet, reproduces a copy of Tom's Interview, this cartographer's atlas discovered in 1967 along with folio sheets from |, wall maps of Europe (1554), the Business Blue Flyer Template., British Isles (1564), and 4+ Amazing Resignation | the world (1569). Business Blue Flyer Template. Free Stock! An accompanying text volume provides a group of interpretive essays. This is Resignation, a beautiful, but rather expensive, book. Unfortunately, the Free Sop Template. Sop Template Why Sop Standard, other retrospectives of Resignation |, Mercator's work are not yet available in English translation. Free Sop Template. Sop Template Standard! The mapmakers of the 4+ Amazing Resignation, sixteenth century are cataloged in 5 Sponsorship Letter Proposal Templates Robert Karrow's Mapmakers of the Sixteenth Century and 4+ Amazing Their Maps: Bio-Bibliographies of the Cartographers of How To Create, Abraham Ortelius, 1570 . Karrow takes the Resignation Letter, eighty-seven cartographers named in Interview a list originally published by Resignation Letter | Ortelius in 5 Sponsorship Letter & Sponsorship Templates 1570, expands their biographies to include modern scholarship, and illustrates many of the Resignation |, maps. 5 Sponsorship & Sponsorship Proposal! Two thousand maps are cataloged in this useful work. Mercator and Ortelius were both natives of the Netherlands, which dominated cartography in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Resignation Letter! Kees Zandvliet's Mapping for Cross Covered Consumers Money follows the activities of the Dutch, primarily through the East and West India Companies, which wanted accurate maps as tools to help them explore new markets.

An interesting feature of this book is the section on topographical painting and paintings that include maps. The painter Vermeer's works are widely known, but here one can see that he was part of Letter |, a Dutch tradition that used maps in an iconic as well as practical fashion. In From Graven Images: Patterns of Modern Materialism , Chandra Mukerji discusses the Free Sop Template. 45 Free Sop Template, map of the Resignation Letter |, early capitalist period as both a consumer good and a capital good, an item for display and an item for business use. An ongoing series by Gnter Schilder, Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica , offers complete coverage to 5 Sponsorship Proposal Templates, selected maps from this era, with text in both Dutch and English. The four volumes published so far come in 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter | pairs, with a text volume for each volume of beautifully produced facsimile maps and atlases. How To Affinity! Jerry Brotton's Trading Territories emphasizes the commercial motives for Letter | exploration and mapping through several case studies, beginning with Portugal. The book opens with an analysis of a tapestry made to commemorate the wedding of Catherine of Austria to Joo III of Portugal in 1525.

The sovereigns are shown with a globe turned to Blue Cross Denies Covered California Agent, reveal the overseas possessions of Portugal, the king's scepter resting on Lisbon. This book also emphasizes the role of the Ottoman Turks in the evolution of 4+ Amazing, sixteenth-century maps. Sop Template Why Sop Standard! Sixteenth-century world maps dealt with the increasing knowledge of the Americas as they were explored. 4+ Amazing Letter! Many books cover this interesting phenomenon, showing how the Tom's Interview, now-familiar geographical shapes of the Western hemisphere emerged from the fog of the unknown. Worthy of Resignation Letter |, special mention is Philip D. Burden's Mapping of North America , a cartobibliography of maps, 1511-1670.

A projected second volume will include maps from Cross California Consumers, 1671 to 1700. Seymour I. Schwartz and Ralph E. 4+ Amazing Resignation |! Ehrenberg's The Mapping of America is Anthem Cross Consumers Agent, less inclusive but covers the entire period from 1500 to the present. Resignation Letter |! This is an excellent general overview. A more specialized work, William P. Cumming's The Southeast in Early Maps , has recently been reissued in 5 Sponsorship Proposal Templates a revised edition by Louis DeVorsey. This book, with 450 maps, covers the period from discovery to the American Revolution and the area between the 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |, northern border of Florida and the southern border of Virginia.

The new edition includes an interesting chapter by How To Create Diagrams For Presentations DeVorsey on Native American maps of the region. Dora Beale Polk's The Island of California: A History of the Myth examines the perennially interesting problem of mapping the 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |, California coast. The survival of numerous maps showing California as insular has been a great boon to Example, the map trade. Governments began to |, use maps as tools not only for foreign conquest and economic exploitation but to Form, establish control at home and for purposes of national defense. 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter! Monarchs, Ministers and Free Sop Template. 45 Free Maps: The Emergence of Cartography as a Tool of Government in Early Modern Europe , edited by David Buisseret, is a collection of articles dealing with England, France, Spain, Austria, Italy, and Poland. This is the published version of the Resignation, 1982 Nebenzahl Lectures, held annually at How To Affinity Diagrams For Presentations the Newberry Library in Chicago. The essays explore, as the 4+ Amazing Letter, subtitle indicates, the Free 45 Free Sop Template Is Used Standard, increasing use of maps for political purposes. Letter |! Josef W. Covered California! Konvitz's Cartography in France, 1660-1848: Science, Engineering, and Statecraft is a more extensive work on France. Konvitz traces the Resignation Letter |, state sponsorship of cartography from the administration of Colbert under Louis XIV, through the General, eighteenth century, when France completed the first national mapping project in 4+ Amazing Letter | Europe, conducted by Letter & Sponsorship Proposal successive members of the Cassini family.

Konvitz shows how maps began to be used for military purposes, for designing canals and 4+ Amazing Resignation roads, and for economic and social programs. As governments took over the making of Path Business, maps, the maps became secret documents, forbidden to fall into Letter the hands of the enemy. Maps had become a weapon in international competition, whether of a military or economic nature. The mapping and Business Event Invitations Event commercial career of another French cartographic family is 4+ Amazing Resignation |, ably described in Sop Template. 45 Free Sop Template Why Sop Mary S. Pedley's Bel et Utile: The Work of Robert de Vaugondy Family of Mapmakers . The maps that preceded the age of discoveries have been treated as curiosities, studied originally for their distortion of the world as we now perceive it. Resignation! In the works of Raymond Beazley, George Kimble, and Event Invitations John Wright (mentioned above), medieval maps were ridiculed for their simplicity and 4+ Amazing Resignation religiosity. More recently, the same maps have been analyzed in their own terms and found to be eloquent expressions of a worldview that might inform our own. Chapters by David Woodward, Paul D.A.

Harvey, and Tony Campbell in volume 1 of The History of Cartography , edited by Harley and Woodward, are a good place to Business Brochure. Flyer Template. Free Stock, start. Paul Harvey also wrote Medieval Maps and 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter Mappa Mundi: The Hereford World Map , which are brief, well-illustrated essays that provide a good overview. The new encyclopedia Trade, Travel and Anthem Blue California Exploration in 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter the Middle Ages , edited by J. B. Friedman and others, includes many map-related entries. Evelyn Edson's Mapping Time and Brochure. Blue Photos Space covers the early period to 1300, examining the 4+ Amazing, way medieval maps are often constructed to represent time (historical, theological) as well as space. A general work on the subject of measurement is Alfred W. Blue Flyer Template. Photos! Crosby's The Measure of Reality: Quantification and 4+ Amazing Western Society, 1250-1600 . Sop Template Is Used Standard! Crosby considers the development of a devotion to measurement a crucial element in Letter | the West's rise to world domination.

Though not writing specifically about maps, he puts technical developments in mapping into a broader context. Tom's Interview! Local and regional maps were made in the Middle Ages, but surviving examples are rare. In Imaginary Cartographies: Possession and Identity in Late Medieval Marseille , Daniel Smail laments that the Resignation, medieval archive of Marseille contains not a single image even remotely like a map. Free Sop Template Why Sop! He goes on 4+ Amazing Resignation | to describe, however, the development of a mental (imaginary) cartography that becomes more uniform as the centuries progress. His work is Create Affinity, based on the records maintained by notaries who recorded deeds, wills, and other property-related documents. He shows how local identifications of 4+ Amazing |, place were originally based on Critical Path Analysis | Tutor2u Business neighborhoods or landmarks but were eventually replaced by the image of the city as a network of 4+ Amazing Resignation, streets, leading to the standardized street address of Example, modern times. 4+ Amazing Letter |! Local maps extant from the Business, Middle Ages are discussed in the relevant chapter by Paul D.A. Harvey in The History of Resignation Letter, Cartography , volume 1. Blue Cross! The larger medieval world maps are rare, delicate, and | difficult to study, even on Free 45 Free Sop Template Why Sop Is Used Standard site. To remedy this problem some are now being reproduced on Letter CD-ROMs.

The Bibliothque Nationale of General Resume Example, France has issued the Letter |, multilingual Mapamondi: Une carte du monde au XIVe sicle , featuring the Catalan Atlas, a large world map made in Blue Cross Denies California Agent Majorca in 1375, reputedly by Abraham Cresques. Letter |! The visuals are good, but the CD-ROM is difficult to navigate. Essays on various topics are unattributed, and there is Interview, no index of place-names. It is more suitable for browsing than research, and dedicated students would do well to Resignation Letter, seek out the Diagrams For Presentations, deluxe book by 4+ Amazing Letter the fourteenth-century Abraham Cresques, Mapamundi, the Catalan Atlas of the Year 1375 , edited by Georges Grosjean. The Hereford Cathedral map of c.1290 is the Business Event & Corporate Event Invites, subject of Naomi Kline's A Wheel of Resignation Letter |, Memory , a CD-ROM of the | Tutor2u Business, Hereford Mappamundi, from the University of 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter, Michigan. Rumor has it that the Blue Template. Free Stock Photos, Biblioteca Marciana in Venice will soon issue a CD-ROM on 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter | their treasure, the Fra Mauro world map of 1450. Jeffrey Burton Russell takes on one of the most common misconceptions about the Middle Ages: that most people subscribed to Event Invitations, the flat earth theory.

His book, Inventing the 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter, Flat Earth , proves convincingly that the earth was viewed as a sphere from the 6th century BCE forward. Business Invitations & Corporate! He traces the flat earth idea to Washington Irving's hagiographical treatment of Resignation Letter, Columbus in 1828, Life and Business Brochure. Blue Template. Royalty Stock Photos Voyages of 4+ Amazing Resignation, Christopher Columbus . Sop Template Why Sop! Russell's work is an interesting essay on Resignation | the need of modern Europeans to believe in their technical superiority over Anthem Blue Denies Covered California Agent, other cultures, even their own past. The appearance of the Vinland map, which has produced so much controversy in 4+ Amazing | the last 35 years, provided the impetus for some excellent scholarship. This map, found in a 15th-century manuscript and bound with an Resume Example - Template, account of 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter, a 13th-century expedition to the court of the Business, Great Khan, shows Vinland and Greenland as islands in the North Atlantic. Although the Norse discovery of Vinland about the 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter, year 1000 is not in doubt, no early maps by these seafarers have ever been found. The map has been largely rejected by the academic world as a forgery, though it has its determined supporters, particularly at Yale where the map is housed. R.A. Skelton, Thomas E. Free Sop Template. Sop Template Why Sop! Marston, and George D. Painter's The Vinland Map and the Tartar Relation was published in 4+ Amazing Letter 1965 and has recently been reissued in a slightly revised edition. Skelton's lengthy essay on the map and How To Affinity Diagrams its antecedents is a fine introduction to medieval cartography.

The book contains a good facsimile of the Resignation Letter, disputed map. With few and 45 Free Is Used fragmentary exceptions, the earliest surviving maps in Letter | the West are medieval. Hence there has been great speculation over the nature of the maps that preceded these, the maps of Greek and Business Brochure. Blue Template. Royalty Free Roman civilization, and to what extent their form and 4+ Amazing Letter | content were reflected in medieval maps. Literature provides evidence that such maps existed, but what did they look like? Claude Nicolet, in Space, Geography, and 5 Sponsorship & Sponsorship Proposal Politics in the Early Roman Empire , has argued that the Roman Empire needed maps in order to administer its wide-ranging domains.

At issue here are maps of Resignation, large areas, such as the Free Standard, Agrippa map, a public monument erected in 4+ Amazing Resignation | Rome during Augustus's reign. This work is described with tantalizing vagueness by Pliny (in his Natural History , 1469), with little indication of Path Analysis | Tutor2u Business, its physical appearance. 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |! The widely accepted idea that this monument was a map is challenged by 5 Sponsorship Letter Proposal Kai Brodersen in Terra Cognita , a work so far not translated from the Letter |, German. General - Template! He lists the 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |, various forms of the map that scholars have proposed and Letter & Sponsorship Templates scorns as creeping presentism the concept that one cannot govern a large empire without maps. 4+ Amazing Resignation! In question is not whether the Romans were capable of surveying smaller areas, as evidenced by Flyer Royalty Free Photos the surviving surveyor's manuals the 4+ Amazing Resignation |, Corpus Agrimensorum Romanum , but whether this facility extended to wider horizons.

For more on Roman surveyors, see Oswald A.W. Dilke's The Roman Land Surveyors . The closest thing there is to & Corporate Invites, a survivor of a Roman world map is the Peutinger Table, a large strip or itinerary map covering the known world. There is, in 4+ Amazing Resignation the National Library of Vienna, a twelfth-century copy of a fourth-century copy of Anthem California, a first-century original. The Tabula has been discussed by O.A.W. Dilke in Greek and Letter Roman Maps , but for a set of good color illustrations, one should pore over Anthem Blue Denies Consumers Agent, the volume of plates accompanying Tabula Peutingeriana: Codex Vindobonensis 324 with commentary by Ekkehard Weber. Possibly designed for 4+ Amazing Letter | administrative purposes, the Proposal, map shows the Roman roads, thoughtfully marked with baths and granaries where travelers could rest and refuel. The high point of scientific cartography in the classical world was the work of Claudius Ptolemy (c.90-160 CE).

In his Cosmographia he discussed various methods of map projection and gave instructions for making a map based on a grid of latitude and Resignation Letter longitude lines. Business Template. Royalty Free! He listed the |, coordinates of 8,000 places, some of them unfortunately in error. No maps survive from 5 Sponsorship Letter Templates, his day, but the maps were reconstructed in the late medieval period, both in 4+ Amazing Resignation Constantinople, where his work had survived, and in the Latin West to which it was imported and translated in Critical Path | Tutor2u Business the early fifteenth century. The work also survived in the Arab world but seems to have had little influence on mapmaking there. Ptolemy's work had a profound impact on Renaissance cartography, revolutionizing mapmaking and pointing it toward the more physically oriented maps of the Resignation |, future. Critical Analysis Business! A translation of his Geographia , as The Geography , is Resignation Letter |, available with black-and-white reproductions of the maps in Affinity an edition by Resignation Letter Edward L. Stevenson. For color reproductions (without the text) there is Ptolemy's Geographia: Tabulae, Claudii Ptolomaei (Cosmography: Maps from Ptolemy's Geography) with an Brochure. Blue Free Stock, introduction by Lelio Pagani. Both of these editions are based on fifteenth-century manuscripts. Facsimiles of early printed editions of Ptolemy (such as the Cosmographia ) appeared in the 1960s, edited by R.A. Skelton.

For a current analysis of Letter, Ptolemy's work one should consult the chapter by O.A.W. Dilke in volume 1 of The History of Tom's Tefl: Interview Evaluation Form, Cartography , edited by Letter Harley and Woodward. Invitations & Corporate Event Invites! Cartography became a hobby of Renaissance statesmen and artists, such as Leonardo da Vinci. The rulers of Italian and German cities were particularly interested in pictorial maps of their own cities. Resignation |! Between 1572 and 1618 a collection of General Resume Example, 530 city maps was published in Cologne by Resignation | George Braun and Frans Hogenberg. 5 Sponsorship Templates! A selection of |, these maps is Invitations & Corporate Invites, nicely reprinted by John Goss in George Braun's City Maps of 4+ Amazing Letter |, Europe: 16th Century Town Plans from Braun Hogenberg . The British Library's The City in Maps: Urban Mapping to Business Stock, 1900 , by James Elliott, offers a more general overview of city maps, including those of Braun and Hogenberg.

One spectacular product of Renaissance cartography is the 4+ Amazing, gallery of maps in the Vatican, designed by Egnazio Danti in 1580. Forty maps of Anthem Cross Denies Covered California, Italy, cities as well as regions, are arranged in 4+ Amazing Letter geographical order as though the central corridor were the Appenine mountain range. Scenes of saints and miracles on the ceiling are also geographically arranged, leading one to the rather medieval conclusion that Italy is the New Holy Land. Lucio Gambi ably describes these murals in The Gallery of Maps in the Vatican , which is illuminated by luscious photographs. David Woodward takes a different approach in Maps as Prints in the Italian Renaissance: Makers, Distributors Consumers . He is Free Sop Template. Why Sop Is Used, interested not only in how maps were made but in who sold them and 4+ Amazing | who bought them and Blue Template. Royalty Free Photos why. The maps of the non-Western world are the subject of the books making up volume 2 of Resignation |, The History of Cartography , edited by Harley and 5 Sponsorship & Sponsorship Templates Woodward.

The Western mapping tradition, with its emphasis on 4+ Amazing | measurement, rapidly came to dominate the cultural dialogue over Brochure. Flyer Free Photos, the representation of space during the Resignation |, imperial era. Some extremely interesting recent works examine this process. Critical Path Analysis | Tutor2u Business! In her book The Mapping of New Spain , Barbara Mundy studies a survey ordered in 1580 by 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter the Spanish Viceroy of Blue Cross Denies Agent, New Spain, an area covering central Mexico. A wide-ranging questionnaire was sent out to local officials, who were also asked to 4+ Amazing Resignation, provide maps of their territory. Business Event Invitations Event Invites! The resulting maps vary widely in form, symbolism, and content, some following a Westernized mapping style and others clearly the product of a preexisting Aztec tradition. Mundy's analysis is supported with good illustrations. Another important work is Thongchai Winichakul's Siam Mapped: A History of the 4+ Amazing Letter |, Geo-Body of a Nation , which describes the intersection of traditional Thai with Western colonial concepts of Template. Free Photos, nationhood in the nineteenth century, resulting in 4+ Amazing Letter a delineation of Siam's boundaries and the formation of Tom's Interview Skills Evaluation, what the author calls the geo-body of 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter, Thailand. This process was map driven, in that the map did not represent the existing reality, but brought a new reality into being.

The traditional idea of Siam was based on | Tutor2u a hierarchy of 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter, rulers rather than a delimited territory. The kingdom was focused on Business Invitations & Corporate the center with vaguely determined edges. Resignation Letter! Pushed by border disputes with France and England, the monarchy took the mapping initiative. In the process of Free Sop Template Why Sop Is Used, redefining Siam, the 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter, victims were the Tom's Interview Skills, small semiautonomous border states with shifting and multiple allegiances. 4+ Amazing Resignation |! This book provides excellent and unusual insight into the role of Tom's Tefl:, maps in the interaction between Western and 4+ Amazing Letter non-Western governments in the colonial era in General Resume - Template Southeast Asia. Better illustrations, in color, of the Thai maps can be found in 4+ Amazing Letter | Thomas Surez's Early Mapping of Southeast Asia . Although European maps are the Create For Presentations, primary focus of Surez's book, there is a brief introductory section on native Asian maps. The beautifully illustrated China in Ancient and Modern Maps , edited by Yan Ping and others, covers 2,000 years of map history in a cartobibliographic format. Richard J. Resignation Letter |! Smith's Chinese Maps: Images of Tom's Interview Skills Form, All under Heaven is produced in a very small format and Resignation the illustrations are almost impossible to see, but the Analysis | Tutor2u Business, text is extremely interesting. 4+ Amazing Resignation! Smith's text and Free 45 Free Yan's pictures are a good introduction to the field, more fully covered in The History of 4+ Amazing |, Cartography , volume 2, book 2.

Matthew H. Create For Presentations! Edney's Mapping an Empire: The Geographical Construction of 4+ Amazing Resignation, British India, 1765-1843 deals with imperialist issues from the Create, European side. The main subject of his book is the immense project of 4+ Amazing |, mapping the Indian subcontinent, carried out by Tom's Tefl: Skills British overlords. 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |! Control was definitely the issue here, but, as Edney points out, there was much disorganization and Interview Evaluation Form bureaucratic confusion. 4+ Amazing Resignation |! He also puts the mapping project in the context of the Enlightenment, with its positivist approach to knowledge of the Tom's Tefl: Evaluation, physical world, a subject treated more extensively in Geography and 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter Enlightenment , edited by David Livingstone and Charles Withers. In conjunction with Edney's book, one might watch Measuring India, the eighth segment in the film series Shape of the World from the Cross Denies California Consumers, 1991 production by Letter Granada TV.

Simon Berthon and Andrew Robinson wrote a book based on the film series. Edney criticizes some of the assumptions made in the film's more superficial account. The mapping of Europe's colonies inspired similar projects at home. Colonial Ireland was the first part of the British Isles to be mapped, as described by Free Sop Template. 45 Free Why Sop Is Used J.H. Resignation Letter |! Andrews in A Paper Landscape: The Ordnance Survey in Nineteenth-Century Ireland , followed by Cross California Consumers Agent England's admirable Ordnance Survey maps. 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter! In the course of the nineteenth century, most European countries, and the United States, were surveyed in national mapping projects. At the same time, new types of maps that were useful to Interview Form, reforming governments were emerging.

Thematic maps, first developed to show physical (and potentially profitable) phenomena such as mineral deposits, were adapted to display social and economic themes. Maps became an effective way to present the data gathered by 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter | census takers. Arthur H. Robinson's Early Thematic Mapping in Proposal the History of Cartography is the rather pedestrian title of a most interesting and readable book. 4+ Amazing! The author argues that the development of How To Diagrams, thematic mapping in the early nineteenth century was a revolution in the history of cartography comparable to the rediscovery of Ptolemy in the fifteenth century. One of the 4+ Amazing Resignation, most sensational of the thematic maps John Snow described is Denies, Robinson's 1855 map of London, marking sites of deaths from cholera. Thanks to 4+ Amazing Resignation, Snow's graphic presentation, it became clear that a huge disproportion of fatal illnesses occurred within a few city blocks near the Broad Street pump.

This work led directly not only to the closing of the offending pump but also to the understanding of the role of Anthem Denies Covered, contaminated water in spreading the disease. 4+ Amazing Resignation |! Since the nineteenth century, the subject matter for thematic maps has continued to expand. Such maps are used to Skills Evaluation Form, illustrate the 4+ Amazing Letter |, geographical distribution of Business Brochure. Free Stock Photos, various phenomena, such as religions, languages, employment, plant species, earthquakes, and Letter | zoning regulations. By the eighteenth century, new surveying techniques made it possible to produce accurate relief maps for the first time, showing the Blue Agent, earth's surface in three dimensions. A dispute arose over Resignation |, the most effective way of presenting this information, whether with some type of shading (intuitively comprehensive) or by the use of contour lines (more accurate). Tefl: Evaluation Form! P.D.A. 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |! Harvey's The History of Is Used Standard, Topographical Maps: Symbols, Pictures and Letter | Surveys presents developments from Business Blue Free Stock, early pictorial maps through the various technical changes. 4+ Amazing Resignation! Besides the Letter Proposal Templates, expected coverage of |, European maps, he includes examples from Mexico, India, China, and Japan. Infinite Perspectives , a recent book by Tom's Tefl: Interview Skills Evaluation Form brothers Brian M. Ambroziak and Resignation Letter | Jeffrey R. Event! Ambroziak, offers a brief history of topographical mapping, but the authors are most anxious to promote their 3-D method (glasses included).

It is not surprising to find that much of the 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |, progress in topographical mapping took place in Anthem Cross Covered California Consumers Agent the challenging terrain of Switzerland. The 19th Century: Education and Literacy. The expansion of Resignation Letter |, public education in the nineteenth century and General Resume Example - Template the consequent increase in literacy led to greater familiarity with and use of 4+ Amazing Resignation |, maps. Path Business! Whereas a map in the Middle Ages would have been a relatively rare document, seen by 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter | few people, a map now became a common item, seen and Create Affinity Diagrams For Presentations used by many. The idea of producing a map for 4+ Amazing Resignation | way-finding, which seems essential to Affinity, our modern idea of maps, was a rather late development.

Although there are examples of itinerary maps before the 4+ Amazing Letter |, sixteenth century, they seem to have functioned as records of journeys already taken or possibly as planning documents. The invention of Skills, printing, however, was soon followed by the production of small, folding maps that could be carried in one's saddlebag, and eventually one's glove compartment. In 1996, the Resignation, Nebenzahl Lectures at Anthem Cross Denies Agent the Newberry Library featured Maps on the Move, and a book of the Resignation |, lectures, offered by James Akerman, is slated to Business & Corporate, appear in 4+ Amazing Letter the coming year. A brief but informative article, Twentieth-Century Highway Maps, by Sop Template. 45 Free Sop Template Why Sop Standard Thomas Schlereth, can be found in From Sea Charts to Letter, Satellite Images , edited by David Buisseret. Douglas A. Yorke and John Margolies's Hitting the Road: The Art of the American Road Map examines the art work that appeared on Business Blue Flyer Stock road maps, with numerous colored illustrations. Maps were apparently used in schools from ancient times, and Resignation several geographical texts from the Event Invitations, Middle Ages seem to Resignation Letter, have been lectures delivered while standing in front of a map. Jeremy Black's Maps and History deals in Brochure. Blue Flyer Photos part with school atlases, which were frequently the Resignation |, conveyors of Resume Example, nationalistic bias. Maps in Resignation bibles appeared in quantity after the Business Event Event Invites, Protestant Reformation, again facilitated by the invention of printing. Letter! These woodcut maps educated their readers on the subject of the travels of Tom's Tefl: Interview Skills, Paul, the disposition of the ancient kingdoms of Israel, and the possible location of the Resignation Letter |, Garden of Eden.

An illustrated catalog of Letter & Sponsorship, these early maps can be found in Catherine Delano-Smith and | Elizabeth Morley Ingram's Maps in Bibles, 1500-1600 . Tom's Interview Form! Walter Ristow's American Maps and Resignation Letter Mapmakers: Commercial Cartography in the 19th Century surveys the business of 5 Sponsorship Letter Proposal Templates, making and selling maps. Printed maps were first made abroad to be sold in America, but eventually the 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter, United States had its own map-printing industry. How To Diagrams! Before the establishment of the 4+ Amazing Letter, US Geological survey in Critical Path Business 1879, most American mapmaking was in private hands. 4+ Amazing |! Rand McNally, founded in 1856, long dominated the Interview Form, field, and the firm receives a detailed history in Ristow's book. The map as an icon, sometimes more or less informative, now appears everywhere: in books, newspapers, on Letter | television, in advertisements. The distortions that frequently mark these productions are described by Mark Monmonier in How to Lie with Maps and Letter & Sponsorship Proposal Maps with the 4+ Amazing Letter, News: The Development of American Journalistic Cartography . Nigel Holmes's Pictorial Maps includes a number of Critical Path Analysis Business, excellent color illustrations of 4+ Amazing Letter |, such maps. This interesting book not only traces the history of Blue Cross Covered California Consumers Agent, cartography but gives many examples of maps in jokes, books, tourist literature, and postcards. 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |! The text is brief, but the Interview Skills, pictures are well chosen. J.B. Post's An Atlas of Fantasy features maps meant to Letter, be works of fiction, from the map in Business Event Invitations & Corporate Event Thomas More's Utopia to more modern imagined landscapes, many of them book illustrations.

Peter Gould and Resignation Letter Rodney White's Mental Maps discusses how maps of real places are shaped by ideas and Tefl: Interview Skills Form experiences, which affect distance, detail, and Resignation Letter direction. The authors give a dramatic example of a map drawn by a young black boy of his neighborhood in Philadelphia. Though his immediate surroundings are presented in Business Event Invitations & Corporate Event Invites detail, the white-occupied area across the road is a blank terra incognita. Letter! Celestial maps are at least as old as terrestrial ones. Event Invitations & Corporate Event! Until recent times, globes were produced in pairs: one celestial, adorned with drawings of the constellations, and one terrestrial. An example is the enormous Coronelli globes made in the seventeenth century for Louis XIV. Smaller versions of these globes are on permanent display in Resignation Letter the Library of Congress. An excellent account of Islamic celestial cartography by Emilie Savage-Smith appears in The History of Cartography , volume 2, book 1, edited by Blue Covered Consumers Agent Harley and Letter Woodward. Peter Whitfield's The Mapping of the Heavens offers an overview of the development of Tom's Tefl: Form, celestial maps with colored illustrations. Terrestrial globes were not commonly made in 4+ Amazing Resignation the West until the sixteenth century, but they soon became a staple of Letter Proposal Templates, both the 4+ Amazing Letter |, philosopher's study and the schoolroom. The globe clearly solved the knotty problem of map projection, but its expense and general cumbersomeness limited its use.

A good general book on the topic is Elly Dekker and Letter Proposal Templates Peter van der Krogt's Globes from the Western World . There seems to be no single book on 4+ Amazing Letter | the development of mapping techniques from the impressionistic views of the Critical | Tutor2u Business, Middle Ages to the introduction of latitude and longitude in 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter the fifteenth century and the invention of General Resume, triangulation for Letter | use in surveying in Diagrams For Presentations the sixteenth century. Longitude has recently attracted attention thanks to 4+ Amazing Resignation |, Dava Sobel's best-selling book Longitude on the drama of John Harrison and his lifelong quest for a clock that would keep perfect time at sea. Sobel's enhanced version of this book, The Illustrated Longitude , is coauthored by William Andrewes. The intelligent captions-and pictures-add a great deal to the work. Andrewes is How To Create Affinity Diagrams For Presentations, also the editor of the papers from the Longitude Symposium (1993), The Quest for 4+ Amazing Longitude . Event Invites! Mapmaking tools were refined in 4+ Amazing Resignation succeeding centuries, up through the twentieth-century explosion of new technology. Proposal! Norman Thrower succinctly covers this development in Maps Civilization . Letter |! He states that the introduction of Tom's Tefl:, aerial photography (first balloons, then airplanes) produced dramatic changes in 4+ Amazing Letter mapping, enabling mapmakers to extend their vision to remote, inaccessible areas of the world. In the Path Analysis, second half of the 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |, twentieth century, satellite photography came to Sop Template. 45 Free Why Sop Standard, supplement photographs taken from airplanes. Satellites are now of even greater importance in providing reliable coordinates for the Global Positioning Systems (GPS). By providing any holder of these small, hand-held devices with exact latitude, longitude, and 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter | altitude, mapmaking was instantly democratized and way-finding made potentially easier, though many ambitious hikers have used the Brochure. Flyer Free Stock Photos, system to get profoundly lost.

Thomas M. Lillesand and Ralph W. Kiefer's Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation describes these developments. The drawing of maps has been revolutionized by the use of computers. Indeed, the leading journal in the field, The American Cartographer , has changed its name to Cartography and Letter | Geographic Information Systems . Using the appropriate software, the mapmaker can change projection, scale, or text, and Royalty Stock Photos print the results with ease. For the possibilities of such a system one may consult the latest edition of a textbook such as Ed Madej's Cartographic Design Using ArcView GIS . The opening chapter describes the rapid advances in Resignation Letter computer cartography in the last decade but warns, You can make maps rapidly with the software, which means that you can also produce a lot of bad maps quickly. An overview of GIS can be found in Geographical Information Systems , edited by Paul A. Longley et al.

This two-volume compendium is made up of chapters contributed by different experts. At the Tom's Tefl: Skills Evaluation Form, present, mapmaking is Letter |, going in two diametrically opposed directions: the increasing, even finicky, accuracy of physical maps, and How To Diagrams For Presentations the quirky, cartoon-like maps that accompany advertising, journalism, and Letter | other popular media. The map is now such a familiar image that it is Tefl: Skills Form, hard to imagine a time when most people had never seen one. The daily weather map is an 4+ Amazing |, example of the widespread modern use of maps, whether one sees the colored version in the newspapers with its cryptic array of signs or the animated version on television with its simulated swirling air masses. Event Invitations & Corporate Event Invites! It is easy to 4+ Amazing Letter, see why most histories of Business Blue Royalty, cartography end in 1900 or even earlier, as the explosion of Letter, new technologies, new uses for maps, and Blue Denies Agent their universality in contemporary culture raise numerous questions, difficult to 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |, resolve. By studying the maps of the past, one is Business Event Invitations Event, led to reflect on Resignation | how each period and How To Create Diagrams For Presentations culture has drawn maps to suit itself, and then our obsession with physical accuracy is Resignation, placed in its proper perspective. Abraham Ortelius and Tom's Tefl: the First Atlas: Essays Commemorating the Quadricentennial of his Death, 1598-1998 , ed. by Marcel van den Broecke, Peter van der Krogt, and Peter Meurer. 4+ Amazing |! Houten, Netherlands: HES Publishers, 1998. Akerman, James. Maps on the Move.

Newberry Library (forthcoming). Business Brochure. Blue Flyer Royalty Stock Photos! Ambroziak, Brian M., and Jeffrey R. Ambroziak. Infinite Perspectives: Two Thousand Years of Three-Dimensional Mapmaking . 4+ Amazing Letter! Princeton Architectural Press, 1999 (CH, Apr'00). Andrews, J.H. Resume Example - Template! A Paper Landscape: The Ordnance Survey in Nineteenth-Century Ireland . 4+ Amazing! Oxford, 1975. Art and Free 45 Free Sop Template Is Used Cartography: Six Historical Essays, ed. by Resignation Letter | David Woodward. Chicago, 1987. How To Create Diagrams! Bagrow, Leo. 4+ Amazing Resignation! History of Letter & Sponsorship Proposal, Cartography . Rev. and enl. by R.A. Skelton. Harvard, 1966.

Beazley, C. Raymond. The Dawn of 4+ Amazing Letter, Modern Geography. P. Free Sop Template. 45 Free Sop Template Is Used Standard! Smith, 1949. Original ed., London, 1901. 4+ Amazing Resignation! 3v. Berthon, Simon, and Tefl: Interview Form Andrew Robinson. The Shape of the World: The Mapping and 4+ Amazing Letter | Discovery of the Earth . Cross Covered California Agent! Rand McNally, 1991.

The Shape of the 4+ Amazing, World video produced by Granada TV (CH, Jun'91). Black, Jeremy. Maps and History: Constructing Images of the Path, Past . Yale, 1997 (CH, Nov'97). Resignation Letter |! ____. Maps and Politics. Chicago, 1997 (CH, Jul'97).

Braun, Georg. Event Invitations & Corporate Event Invites! The City Maps of Resignation, Europe: 16th Century Town Plans from Braun Hogenberg , John Goss. Rand McNally, 1992. British Library. The City in Maps: Urban Mapping to 1900 , [by] James Elliott. London: British Library, 1987. - Template! Brodersen, Kai. 4+ Amazing Letter |! Terra Cognita: Studien zur rmischen Raumerfassung . Hildesheim: G.Olms, 1995. London: Reaktion Books, 1997. Brotton, Jerry. Trading Territories: Mapping the Early Modern World.

Cornell, 1998 (CH, Sep'98). Burden, Philip D. Anthem Cross Denies Covered! The Mapping of Letter, North America: A List of Printed Maps, 1511-1670. Rickmansworth, Herts.: Raleigh Publishers, 1996. Affinity Diagrams For Presentations! Campbell, Tony. The Earliest Printed Maps, 1472-1500 . California, 1987 (CH, Oct'88).

Cartographical Innovations: An International Handbook of Mapping Terms to 1900 , ed. by _Helen M. Wallis and Arthur H. Robinson. Tring, Herts, UK: Map Collector Publications, 1987. China in Ancient and Modern Maps , Yan Ping et al. London: Sotheby's, 1998. Conley, Tom. The Self-Made Map: Cartographic Writing in Early Modern France. Minnesota, 1996 (CH, May'97). Cresques, Abraham. Mapamundi, the Catalan Atlas of the Year 1375 , ed. and with commentary by 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter | Georges Grosjean. - Template! Dietikon-Zurich: Urs Graf; distrib. by Abaris Books, 1987.

Crosby, Alfred W. The Measure of Reality: Quantification and Western Society, 1250-1600. Cambridge, 1997 (CH, May'97). Cumming, William P. The Southeast in Early Maps. 3rd ed. Rev. and Resignation | enl. by Louis DeVorsey. Resume Example! North Carolina, 1998.

Orig. ed., 1958. Dekker, Elly, and | Peter van der Krogt. Globes from the Western World . Brochure. Blue Flyer Template. Stock Photos! Zwemmer, 1993. Delano-Smith, Catherine, and Elizabeth M. Letter |! Ingram. Critical Path Analysis | Tutor2u Business! Maps in 4+ Amazing Letter Bibles, 1500-1600: An Illustrated Catalogue.

Libraririe Droz, 1991. How To Affinity Diagrams For Presentations! Delano-Smith, Catherine, and 4+ Amazing Roger J.P. General Example! Kain. English Maps: A History . British Library, 1999. Dilke, O.A.W. Greek and Roman Maps. Cornell, 1985. ____.

The Roman Land Surveyors: An Introduction to 4+ Amazing, the Agrimensores. Tefl: Interview Skills Evaluation! Newton Abbot: David and 4+ Amazing | Charles, 1971. 45 Free Is Used Standard! Edney, Matthew H. Mapping an Empire: The Geographical Construction of British India, 1765-1843. Chicago, 1997 (CH, Dec'97). Edson, Evelyn. Mapping Time and 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter Space: How Medieval Mapmakers Viewed Their World . London: British Library, 1997.

Five Centuries of Map Printing, ed. by David Woodward. Chicago, 1975. Nebenzahl lectures of 1972. From Sea Charts to Satellite Images: Interpreting North American History through Maps , ed. by David Buisseret; introd. by Free Sop Template. 45 Free Sop Template Standard J.B. Harley. Resignation |! Chicago, 1990 (CH, Jun'91). Gambi, Lucio. The Gallery of Maps in the Vatican , tr. by Blue Covered California Consumers Agent Paul Tucker. George Braziller, 1997. Geographical Information Systems: Principles, Techniques, Applications, and Management , ed. by 4+ Amazing Letter | Paul A. Longley et al.

2nd ed. Wiley, 1999. Cross Denies Covered! Geography and Enlightenment , ed. by David N. Resignation |! Livingstone and Charles W.J. 5 Sponsorship Letter Templates! Withers. Chicago, 1999 (CH, Apr'00). Gould, Peter R., and Rodney White. Resignation! Mental Maps . Tom's Interview! 2nd ed. Allen Unwin, 1986. Harley, J. Brian. Maps and the Columbian Encounter . Golda Meir Library, University of Wisconsin, 1990.

Harvey, P.D.A. The History of Topographical Maps: Symbols, Pictures and Surveys . 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |! Thames Hudson, 1980. Tom's Interview Form! ____. Mappa Mundi: The Hereford World Map. Toronto, 1996 (CH, Dec'96). 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |! ____. Analysis | Tutor2u! Medieval Maps . Toronto, 1991. Resignation Letter |! The History of Cartography , ed. by Tefl: Interview Skills Evaluation Form J. Brian Harley and David Woodward. Letter |! 2v. How To Create Affinity For Presentations! Chicago, 1987 et seq.

2v., 2nd vol. in 3 books (CH, Mar'93). Volume 3 (forthcoming). Holmes, Nigel. Pictorial Maps . Watson-Guptill, 1991. The Iconography of Landscape: Essays on the Symbolic Representation, Design, and Resignation Letter | Use of Past Environments , ed. by Denis Cosgrove and 5 Sponsorship & Sponsorship Proposal Templates Stephen Daniels. Resignation |! Cambridge, 1988.

Irving, Washington. Templates! A History of the 4+ Amazing Letter |, Life and Voyages of 5 Sponsorship & Sponsorship, Christopher Columbus . A. and Letter | W. Tom's Tefl: Interview Evaluation Form! Galignani, 1828. Jacob, Christian. The Sovereign Map: Theoretical Approaches in Cartography Through History; tr. by Tom Conley. Chicago, forthcoming.

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Cookies and similar technologies. A “cookie” is a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in order, for example, to General - Template collect information about Your activities on 4+ Amazing | the Website. The cookie transmits this information back to the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the only computer that can read it. We need to use cookies on the Website to enhance the user experience and avoid multiple logins or password authentication requests. We may use, or we may engage third-parties to use on our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on How To Create Affinity For Presentations your computer or device) or similar technologies to identify Your computer or device and record Your preferences and other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and features of our Website are popular, and improve our Website and Your experience.

Depending upon 4+ Amazing Letter, Your computer, You may be able to Affinity For Presentations set Your browser(s) to reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in the loss of some functionality on the Website. We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an HTML e-mail) to monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails. Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and 4+ Amazing Letter, the same color as the Resume Example, background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Your computer and 4+ Amazing Letter |, Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and purchases on How To Diagrams our Website, and 4+ Amazing |, other analytical information associated with the Website. Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from other sources. For example, We may receive credit information from Sop Template. 45 Free Sop Template Is Used Standard third-party sources before initiating Your service. We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU.

We use the information We collect for a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and bill for Resignation Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from General Resume - Template us; To verify Your identity and 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter, maintain a record of Your transactions and interactions with us; To provide customer services to You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and their performance; To identify and suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about current and future Service offerings;

To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and General Resume Example, property and that of 4+ Amazing Letter, our customers, service providers and Business Invitations & Corporate, other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for legal purposes. We may use Personal Information for Resignation Letter investigations or prevention of fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and offers that We believe You may find of | Tutor2u, interest.

We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. This information is used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of 4+ Amazing Resignation |, our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent.

WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers.

We may disclose information to third-party vendors and Critical Path Business, partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is Diagrams For Presentations reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the Resignation |, appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of Templates, physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to 4+ Amazing protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure.

As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for Letter & Sponsorship as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. 4+ Amazing? When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to Tom's Interview Skills Evaluation Form erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and 4+ Amazing Resignation, wiping electronic media).

PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). Business Event Invitations Event Invites? You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes. This web site is 4+ Amazing owned and operated by Why Sop Standard, Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. 4+ Amazing Resignation | A Referral is an Event Invitations & Corporate Event Invites individual who requests a service via the 4+ Amazing Letter, referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance.

A Partner can transfer the 5 Sponsorship Templates, money to the Bonus Balance and use it to Resignation | purchase a service. 5 Sponsorship & Sponsorship Templates? It is possible to | transfer the sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).

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Updates job knowledge by participating in Tom's Tefl: Interview Skills, educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations. 4+ Amazing Letter |! Enhances department and organization reputation by accepting ownership for accomplishing new and different requests; exploring opportunities to add value to job accomplishments. Assists attorneys in preparing for Affinity Diagrams For Presentations trials and court proceedings. Supports attorneys in a legal office. Investigates the facts of cases and 4+ Amazing Resignation ensure that all relevant information is considered. Identify appropriate laws, judicial decisions, legal articles, and other materials for assigned cases. Compiles, analyzes, and organizes information. Gathers exhibits. Prepares written reports. Prepares legal arguments for lawsuits. Drafts pleadings and motions filed in court.

Secures affidavits. Assists attorneys during trials. Organizes and tracks files from case documents and make them available and easily accessible to attorneys. Drafts contracts, mortgages, and separation agreements. Prepares tax returns. Establishes trust funds.

Plans estates. Proposal Templates! Supervises other law office employees. 4+ Amazing Resignation! Delegates responsibilities. General Resume! Maintains financial records. Searches legal literature stored in computer databases and on CD-ROM. Tracks hours and bill to clients.

Works under the direction of 4+ Amazing |, lawyers and help them prepare for meetings, hearings and Business Event Invitations & Corporate Event trials. 4+ Amazing Letter! Undertake research projects for multiple cases to determine precedent, drafts or completes legal documents and ensure the correct paperwork is Free 45 Free Sop Template Standard filed with the courts within a specific time period. Works directly with clients in a non-advising capacity, such as answering questions, scheduling appointments and making sure all court requirements are met. Resignation! Handles other routine tasks, such as processing and transcribing documents, entering data, scheduling and taking dictation are common duties of How To Diagrams For Presentations, a legal office assistant. Responsible for handling typical office duties, such as answering phones, managing inventory or performing accounting tasks. Responsible for overseeing the Resignation Letter smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for new team members Responsible for & Corporate training, evaluation and assessment of Letter, employees Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointments Oversees the smooth running of the daily office activities.

Identifies, prioritizes, and reaches out to new partners, and Tom's Evaluation business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the completion of development projects. Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and information Represents the company in strategic meetings Helps increase sales and growth for the company. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to Resignation | forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for one or more properties. Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the company Serves as internal auditor for Business Event Invitations Invites the company. Receives Visitors / clients on behalf of the organization Receives parcels / documents for the company Handles enquiries via e-mail and Letter phone calls for the organization Distributes mails in the organization Handles any other duties as assigned my the line manager. Sample Law Firm Business Plan Template SWOT Analysis. Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP hired the services of a core professional in the area of How To Create For Presentations, business consulting and structuring to assist the firm in 4+ Amazing Letter |, building a solid law firm that can favorably compete in Letter Proposal Templates, the highly competitive law industry. |! Part of what the General Example business consultant did was to work with the management of the firm in conducting a SWOT analysis and preparing a law firm marketing plan for Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP. 4+ Amazing Resignation! Here is a summary from the result of the SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of 5 Sponsorship & Sponsorship Proposal Templates, Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP; Our core strength lies in the power of 4+ Amazing, our team; our workforce.

We have a team that can go all the way to give our clients value for Letter & Sponsorship Proposal Templates their money. We are well positioned and we know we will attract loads of clients from the first day we open our doors for business. As a new law firm, it might take some time for our firm to break into the market; that is perhaps our major weakness. The opportunities in the law industry is massive and we are ready to take advantage of any opportunity that comes our way. Some of the 4+ Amazing threats that we are likely going to face as a law firm operating in the United States are unfavorable government policies, and global economic downturn. There are hardly anything we could do as regards these threats other than to Invitations Event Invites be optimistic that things will continue to work for our good. Sample Law Firm Business Plan Template MARKET ANALYSIS. Quite a number of distinct trends have emerged in recent times in the legal industry, which is 4+ Amazing Letter | why law firms are positioning their organizations to Critical Analysis | Tutor2u Business survive the peaks and troughs of an ailing economy. As a matter of fact, most of these trends aid law firms and organizations to become more creative, competitive, efficient, and productive in a global market. Some other trends in 4+ Amazing |, the legal industry could be attributed to changing demographics, attitudes and Sop Template. Why Sop Standard work styles. Another trend that is gaining momentum in the legal industry is that clients have the options of seeking legal assistance from a growing number of non-lawyer professionals such as; paralegal technicians, legal document preparers, legal self-help sites, virtual assistants and offshore legal vendors.

As a result of this trend, the decisions about how legal services are delivered which include staffing, scheduling, strategies and most importantly how firms charge for their services – are increasingly being influenced by the clients, and not by the law firms as it used to 4+ Amazing be in time past. No doubt, as the cost of legal services continues to Analysis | Tutor2u increase and as corporate spending falls, new legal delivery methods will continue to emerge and gain momentum going forward. In addition, the market for legal services has shifted from a sellers#8217; market to a buyers#8217; market. Lastly, it is 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter now becoming trendy in the legal industry for smaller law firms to merge with bigger law firms and for bigger law firms to acquire smaller law firms; mergers and acquisitions. Many law firms all over the United States are coming to the conclusion that the Resume - Template bigger the better for them. Although Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP will initially serve small to Resignation Letter medium sized businesses, from new ventures to well established businesses, but that does not in any way stop us from growing to be able to compete with the leading law firms in the United States. We hope to someday merge or acquire other law firms and expand our legal services beyond the Create Affinity For Presentations shores of the United States of America. As a full service business law firm, Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP have a variety of Letter |, practice areas to help startups grow. While we works with a variety of organizations and industries, Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP will also specialize in working with startups, real estate investors, and Business Event Invites contractors, manufacturers and distributors, banks, lending and financial institutions. Our target market cuts across people of different classes and people from |, all walks of life, local and international organizations as well. 5 Sponsorship Letter Templates! We are coming into the industry with a business concept that will enable us work with the highly placed people and companies in the country and at the same with the lowly placed people and 4+ Amazing smaller businesses.

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Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP might be a new entrant into the law industry in the United States of America, but the management staffs and Business & Corporate Event Invites board members are considered gurus. They are people who are core professionals and licensed legal practitioners in Letter |, the US. These are part of what will count as a competitive advantage for Tefl: Interview Evaluation us. Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter their welfare package will be amongst the best within our category (startups law firm) in 45 Free, the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our objectives. Law Firm Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. We are mindful of the fact that there is stiffer competition in the legal market in the United States of America; hence we have been able to hire some of the best business developer to handle our sales and 4+ Amazing Resignation | marketing. Our sales and marketing team will be recruited based on their vast experience in the industry and they will be trained on a regular basis so as to be well equipped to meet their targets and the overall goal of the organization. We will also ensure that our excellent job deliveries speaks for us in the market place; we want to build a legal business that will leverage on word of mouth advertisement from - Template, satisfied clients (both individuals and organizations).

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We are well positioned to 4+ Amazing Letter | take on the available market in the U.S, and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first month or operations and grow the Create Diagrams business and clientele beyond Oakland, CA to other states in the U.S. and even the global market. We have been able to critically examine the law market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry. Resignation Letter |! We have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projection are based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to & Sponsorship Proposal startups in California. Below is the sales projection for Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP, it is | based on the location of our law firm and the wide range of legal services that we will be offering; N.B : This projection is done based on what is Proposal Templates obtainable in the industry, Hourly billing for legal services is long – time tradition in the industry. However, for some types of work, flat fees make more sense because they allow clients to better predict legal costs. As a result of this, Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP will charge our clients a flat fee for many basic services such as; business formation and document drafting and review.

At Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP we will keep our fees below market rate for all of our clients by keeping our overhead low and by collecting payment in advance. In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to disadvantaged individuals, nonprofits, cooperatives, and small social enterprises. We are aware that there are some clients that would need regular access to legal advice and assistance; we will offer flat rate general counsel services that will be tailored to 4+ Amazing Letter | take care of such clients’ needs. Proposal Templates! At Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP, our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that we will make available to our clients; Payment by via bank transfer Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment with cash. In view of the Letter | above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans without any itches. Law Firm Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy.

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At Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP is going to start as a private business that will be solely owned by 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter | Bar Jefferson Carson and family. He will be the sole financial of the 5 Sponsorship Letter firm, but may likely welcome partners pretty much which is why he has decided to Resignation Letter | restrict the sourcing of Free Sop Template. Sop Template Why Sop, his start – up capital to 3 major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings Source for soft loans from 4+ Amazing Letter |, family members and friends Apply for loan from my Bank. Free! N.B: We have been able to generate about $60,000 (Personal savings $40,000 and soft loan from family members $20,000) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $100,000 from our bank. All the papers and document has been signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited. LAW FIRM BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. It is easier for | businesses to survive when they have steady flow of business deals / customers patronizing their products and services. Sop Template Is Used Standard! We are aware of this which is why we have decided to offer a wide range of legal services.

We know that if we continue to deliver excellent legal services, there will be steady from of income for the organization. Our key sustainability and expansion strategy is to ensure that we only Resignation, hire competent employees, create a conducive working environment and Event & Corporate Event Invites employee benefits for Resignation our staff members. Business Invitations & Corporate Event! In the nearest future, we will explore the 4+ Amazing Resignation | options of either merging with other law firms or acquire law firms in order for us to increase our market share. We know that if we implement our business strategies, we will grow our law business beyond Oakland, California to How To Create other states in the U.S in record time. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Incorporation: Completed Opening of Resignation Letter, Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in the United States: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and Critical | Tutor2u Business permit: Completed Purchase of All form of Insurance for the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating part of the start – up capital from the Letter | founder: Completed Applications for Resume - Template Loan from our Bankers: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: Completed Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, office equipment, electronic appliances and facility facelift: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business (Business PR): In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Establishing business relationship with key players in the industry: In Progress.

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Essay: Dreams – theories, history and film. What is a dream? Is it just a figment of the imagination? Are dreams reflections of personality or a prophecy? Humans were and Resignation still are wondering, discovering, learning about the source as well as meaning of Form, dreams, their visions for centuries. Letter. From a scientific point of view, a dream is Business Invitations Event Invites not just the sleeping state in itself, but awareness – resting of the brain, it is the moment most closely related to the sphere of human desires. It is a source of knowledge coming from the deepest recesses of the psyche, a path from the mind to the brain.

REF. This topic was chosen as the author became fascinated with the subject of dreams following her practical work an earlier stage and decided to explore the topic in more depth, including historical references and symbolism used by artists and writers. How do dreams arise and what images do they create? How do artists reconstruct them and present in their work? Night is 4+ Amazing Resignation not only the time in which one is resting, but it is also the time to Path Analysis | Tutor2u, disclose the true subconscious thoughts and desires, senses, needs, values, fears or even human hopes.

What one dreams of is a record of the life of unconscious human targets, a combination of experiences. Resignation Letter. The analysis of dreams is the path to get to Resume, know oneself, reveal they suppressed psychical content. The sleep state is something spectacular, a gateway to another world, far away from everyday life. Resignation Letter | The dream reveals the secrets of the General Resume Example past, the Resignation future, as well as the present. It is Is Used a state of union of the human soul with the whole world around. Chapter one will look at the relevant theories developed by Jung, Emerson and the controversial Sigmund Freud, the Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist who claimed that the human psyche is not only limited to consciousness. 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter | Chapter one aims to critically analyse psychoanalysis and the symbolisms of Analysis | Tutor2u, dreams. Chapter two aims to 4+ Amazing Resignation, investigate the title in more depth in terms of the historical aspect. Sop Template. Sop Template Why Sop Is Used Standard. It also attempts to discover how the 4+ Amazing Resignation interpretation of dreams has evaluated through at Sop Template. 45 Free Sop Template Is Used, the centuries. Chapter two will examine the role of 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |, dreams in a few selected literary works and General Resume Example - Template pieces of art and will explore the outcomes.

Chapter three will consider in more depth the one of the most interesting movements in 4+ Amazing Dali’s work including the 1929 silent film ‘Un Chien Andalon’ (An Andalusian Dog) CHAPTER ONE – THE THEORY OF THE DREAM AND ITS MEANINGS. The title of the Templates first famous work of the Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist Sigmund Freud has been translated as “The Interpretation of Dreams”. 4+ Amazing | This is the manifesto of Critical Business, his ideas. 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter | The book which was published in 1899, threw a completely new light on the subject of sleep. According to Freud night is not only the time in which a man rests ‘ it is primarily a time to reveal his true, unconscious thoughts and desires. REF.

Freud discovered by examining his patients that the Path Analysis | Tutor2u Business human psyche determines active yet unconscious representations that relate to 4+ Amazing Resignation |, childhood. He concludes that the experiences from the early stages of personality development can after many years cause obsessive thoughts, fears and strange courses of action. The reasons for such behaviour are, according to Freud not admitted to consciousness due to the high emotional charge when the Path Analysis | Tutor2u emotions which are too painful or too improbable. REF. Freud distinguished three spheres of the human psyche: the Resignation unconscious the Id, the Ego and conscious irrational the Superego. The Id acts in accordance with the pleasure principle. In 1933, Sigmund Freud described the Id as. ‘the dark, inaccessible part of our personality, what little we know of it we have learnt from Letter Templates our study of the dream-work and of the 4+ Amazing Resignation | construction of neurotic symptoms, and most of this is of a negative character and can be described only Tom's Tefl:, as a contrast to the ego. We all approach the id with analogies: we call it a chaos, a cauldron full of seething excitations… It is filled with energy reaching it from the instincts, but it has no organization, produces no collective will, but only a striving to bring about the satisfaction of the instinctual needs subject to the observance of the pleasure principle.’ REF.

The Id remains in 4+ Amazing Letter | conflict with the Superego and the outside world. The Ego, guided by the principle of reality, tries to alleviate this conflict and customize the behaviour of the individual to conform to given environment principles. It attenuates impulses or satisfies them in the safest and most beneficial manner including the most important – sexual. Tom's. According to the theory of Resignation, Freud one of the proofs of the existence of the Id are dreams, fulfilling the unconscious desires and Business Event & Corporate Event replacing real action. Dreams are hidden desires, which reflect the subconscious, and thanks to them it is possible to discover the cause of anxiety and neurotic behaviour.

According to Freud, the dream is a creation of the Resignation Letter | dreamer’s own activity, but during sleep censorship temporarily weakens its activities. This allows unconscious thoughts to have the opportunity to appear. REF. Thus the dream is a record of life, unconscious human needs, and a combination of experiences. The analysis of dreams is the Analysis Business path to get to know oneself; dreams reveal suppressed psychological content. In a dream, several forms merge into one. For example, anxiety concerning one house may manifest itself in dreams as a few houses. According to 4+ Amazing Letter |, scientists, the dream is something extraordinary, the gateway to another world, far away from everyday life. Freud concluded that the human psyche cannot be limited only to consciousness. He claimed that there is an unconscious that contains in itself the specific content and which is also directing its own mechanisms. Unconscious processes affect our behaviour.

REF. Freud introduced two new theories concerning dreams-manifest and latent content. Manifest content is simply remembered dream, latent content is an expression of latent desires, memories of the previous days, and the impetus of the body or the environment. The close connection between the dream and the unconscious the Id makes every detail of the Free Sop Template. Why Sop Is Used Standard overt content of dreams imbuing with it some significance. According to 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |, Jung, dreams are influenced by Interview, ancient culture, communications and | the experience of the old religions dormant in the subconscious – what might be called unconscious memory. He believed that dreams are unconscious revelation of transcendental wisdom to the individual. Freud and Jung have made great contributions to the study of dreams and have created a solid foundation for translating dreams. These studies show that during sleep the subconscious sends signals that actually deciphered can explain where the source of the problem is and How To how it can be solved. REF. In dreams nothing happens without a reason, they can be deciphered. Because sexual desire, according to Freud, plays a crucial role in human life, different objects and situations in dreams can refer to sexual objects.

For example, sticks, knives, umbrellas and shotguns, are unconscious representations of the penis. According to this theory, young girls seeking sexual contacts and yet fearful of them are often in dreams pursued by men with a knife or firearm. On the other hand, for 4+ Amazing Resignation example, fruits such as apples, in men’s dreams symbolize a woman’s breasts. REF Indeed, not all dreams are filled with unconscious sexual content. One patient told Freud a dream in which members of Create Diagrams, his family were sitting around an odd-shaped table. Seemingly the dream did not make sense. But it turned out that the man had seen a similar table the house of a friend he had met recently. 4+ Amazing | REF.

Another example of dream analysis he in accordance with Freud’s theory is cited in the book, “Secrets of Sleep” by Alexander Borbely. A certain man dreamed that he was riding a bike. His answer to the question of what bike reminded him was that this was his son’s favourite pastime. Resume Example - Template. In the autumn the son would be leaving for university and the man wanted to spend more time with him before his departure. The second dream involved a combination of his father’s death following a heart attack. The bike had helped the father to maintain fitness. The dream of cycling related to two very serious things in his life. REF. Some people believe that many theories developed by Freud and his successors such, as Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) and Erich Fromm (1900-1980), are not supported by sufficient scientific evidence. On the other hand, the phenomenon of sleep and subconscious human hides so many puzzles that one cannot authoritatively determine who is right and who is wrong.

Perhaps doubt will never be justified. Formerly dreams were given different meanings. They were considered as information derived from the | gods, and the mysterious language of sleep sought to be explained in many ways. The sages and priests spent much time on Analysis | Tutor2u Business this. In order to Letter |, fathom the mystery of dreams, dreams were collected and were written down in order to later attempt to interpret them. Erich Fromm believed that ‘Both dreams and myths are important communications from ourselves to ourselves.

If we do not understand the language in Letter & Sponsorship Templates which they are written, we miss a great deal of what we know and tell ourselves in those hours when we are not busy manipulating the outside world. 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter | ‘ REF. Myths and dreams are united by one shared feature – dreams can be written in Resume - Template symbolic language. It is a language in which the inner experiences, feelings and thoughts are expressed in such a way as if they were sensory experiences, events in the outside world. This language is 4+ Amazing governed by logic which is different from the Free 45 Free Is Used conventional, everyday logic, in 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter which there is not significant space and time, but intensity and association. Historically, for people living both east and Affinity Diagrams For Presentations west, dreams and myths were among the most important creations the mind, and 4+ Amazing Resignation the lack of How To Create, understanding of dreams was treated as ignorance.

An interesting interpretation of dreams was presented by Artemidorus in the second century. His work on the translation of the dream had a huge impact on the views of the Middle Ages. He distinguished five types of 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |, dreams: 1) Dream hides the truth in latent form. 2) The vision is when what is Analysis | Tutor2u seen in a dream is what happened in the real world.

3) An racle is a revelation sent down in 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter a dream by an angel, or another character to fulfill the will of God. 4) Fantasy is when what preoccupies s person during the day t is subject of the dream. 5) The phantom is a night vision, which is manifested to small the Event & Corporate Event children or elderly people to scare or scandalize them. Ralph Emerson theorized that dreams reflect character, and particularly those aspects that cannot be observed in waking behaviou. This manifests itself in the character of the other , as he claimed, ‘in the dreams of other persons their hidden forces which affect their behavior and in this way we can often predict their future actions.’ REF. Whereas Emerson suggested a relationship between character and dream, Henri Bergson argued that dreams are actually caused by Resignation, different physical stimuli, but these stimuli do not need to Free Sop Template Why Sop Standard, be explained as the dominant desires. According to him dreams are caused by memories being pushed into oblivion. He assumed that the human mind does not forget anything, and what is remembered, is only a small fraction of the whole of one’s memory. REF.

Many researchers share the view that dreams have in them something of both an irrational and a rational nature. Some people believe that dreams reveal the animal nature and are the gateway to illusions whereas dreams for others are an expression of the most rational forces, which is the gateway to truth. According to some researchers, the role of dreams is to 4+ Amazing Letter, explain when the Critical Business dream manifests the better part of the “I”, and when it dominates the animal nature. REF. A long time before psychoanalysis, great importance was attributed to dreams; hence the frequent presence of dreams and | visions as theme in the literature of Tom's Tefl: Skills, different eras. The works of some artists also embed this convention which will be discussed further in the following chapter. CHAPTER TWO ‘ HISTORY OF THE DREAM AND ITS EVOLUTION. The first references regarding dreams in art are as old as literature itself. 4+ Amazing. The interest in dreams and Affinity their analysis began with the 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter | birth of humanity.

Since time immemorial, dreams have been the richest source of the interpretation of the past, present, and Tom's Tefl: Interview most importantly the 4+ Amazing | future. The stories of 45 Free Sop Template Why Sop, Gilgamesh, Iliad and the Bible all describe dreams of some of the main characters along with their meanings. However dreams as art, without historical or tale format appear to have developed in later years, although it is impossible to know how many pre-modern works were inspired by Letter |, dreams. (Belanger, 2005)’According to one of the oldest beliefs, sleep was a state similar to the state of Tom's Tefl: Interview Evaluation Form, death. In former times dreams considered were to be the journey of the Resignation Letter | soul leaving the body REF. This idea of the soul leaving the body can be to Event & Corporate, the pre-Christian era. In the Bible there are many examples of dreams. In ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, the Letter | dream was considered a bad omen, unless it was interpreted by experts who carried out the General appropriate rituals according to their message. Babylonians treated dreams as a kind of 4+ Amazing Letter, guide to conduct in everyday life.

Also the ancient Greeks had a highly developed technique of dream interpretation. Initially, they considered dreams as signs from the gods, consisting of a kind of guide to the complicated way of life. Health was analysed in terms of dreams. According to mythology, the Ancient Greeks imagined the god of sleep, Hypnos, as a winged youth. He was the brother of Thanatos, the Sop Template Is Used god of death. Hypnos could make people fall asleep just by touching their foreheads with a twig or strewing on them poppies stored in horn. A more common representation of a dream coming from ancient culture is Morpheus, son of Hypnos the god of dreams. Morpheus had the 4+ Amazing Letter ability to mimic any human form and appear in dreams. Is Used. REF. In the Bible the dream has a symbolic meaning.

It could be an omen, prophecy or vision. God appeared to Pharaoh in a dream, cautioning him of imminent danger. 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter | Pharaoh’s vision allowed him to avoid the oncoming adversity. God gave him a chance to save the people from famine, which was coming in the near future. Pharaoh dreamed that he was standing by the Nile, when up seven cows, sleek and fat appeared out of the Critical | Tutor2u Business river and they grazed among the reeds. After them, seven other cows, ugly and gaunt, came up out of the Nile and stood beside those on the riverbank. The cows that were ugly and Resignation Letter | gaunt ate up the seven sleek, fat cows. Then Pharaoh woke up, but when he fell asleep again, he dreamed a second dream. Seven heads of grain, healthy and good, were growing on a single stalk. After them, seven other heads of grain sprouted thin and scorched by the east wind. Resume Example. The thin heads of grain swallowed up the seven healthy, full heads.

Pharaoh woke up again and Resignation realized it was a dream which may have been sent as a warning. – Image 1 Pharaoh’s Dreams by James Tissot. The next day, Pharaoh decided to convene all the magicians and wise men of Egypt but none of 45 Free Is Used, them knew what the dream meant. Joseph, who was held captive had the gift of interpretation of dreams . ‘The dreams of Pharaoh are one and the same. God has revealed to Pharaoh what he is about to do. The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good heads of grain are seven years; it is one and the same dream.

The seven lean, ugly cows that came up afterward are seven years, and so are the seven worthless heads of grain scorched by the east wind: They are seven years of 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter |, famine.’ REF. However, after seven years of prosperity there was to Business Invites, be time of misery and Resignation Letter poverty. General Resume - Template. Joseph advised Pharaoh to Resignation, build granaries where he might store the Create For Presentations excess food. In addition, Joseph announced that if the dream was repeated twice, it was certain that it would happen. REF. The author of the Exodus proved that dreams could predict the future or foreshadow any specific event. The Bible is a source of various motives and symbols that are for people a reference to Letter, real life. Dreams in the Bible reveal the intricacies of the human psyche, reveal fears and anxieties, and yet are a path which God and man can communicate. God appeared in 5 Sponsorship Templates Solomon’s dream and announced that he would give anything that Solomon wished. Solomon was king of Israel and did not demand long life or riches; he preferred to have the wisdom to distinguish between good and evil, when governing the people.

God fulfilled his wish, but also gave him fame and wealth. The dream here demonstrated Solomon’s attitude to God, who not only Letter |, fulfilled his request but gave him more. REF Luca Giordano was one of the most important painters of the late Baroque period. Invited to Spain by King Charles II in 1692, he was soon established as the leading painter at Critical Analysis | Tutor2u, the Spanish Court. For the 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter | crown, he painted in Critical Path Analysis Business particular the biblical stories of inter alia Solomon where he also immortalized the scene of Solomon’s dream. Early Christians interpreted dreams as a state in which the defenseless body and spirit were susceptible to a variety of influences. Nightmares were thought to Resignation Letter, be a clear manifestation of demons and monsters or warnings from God or a message from heaven. In the How To Create For Presentations New Testament, an angel appeared to Joseph in a dream and declared that Mary was pregnant by the Holy Spirit. Mary and Joseph were not married yet and Joseph thought about annulling the betrothal because of the pregnancy of Letter |, Mary. Create Affinity Diagrams. However, the angel told him that the future child would be the Letter Saviour, which led to Joseph’s change of heart.

REF. Dream themes appeared as early as in ancient Greek and Roman comedies, and continued to provide material for drama throughout the centuries. One example is the Baroque ‘Life Is a Dream’ by Calderon de la Barca in 1635 (WHERE?!) Long before the discovery of psychoanalysis and its development, there were attempts to unravel the mystery of the origin and message of dreams. Interview Skills Form. Also artists started to 4+ Amazing Letter, be more involve in this phenomen. The Renaissance era was no exception. In the & Sponsorship fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, dreams became a theme often adoptedby artists who tried to push the boundaries of art seeking ways to show the 4+ Amazing | unpreventable. How could an artist capture on canvas something so intangible, ephemeral and incomprehensible as a dream? Another form, which was as its basic material, imagination and dream, is the drama of the Renaissance era.

Writers used dreams to reveal the complexities of the human psyche and to reveal subconscious fears and Tefl: Interview Form anxieties. Resignation Letter. This method was used by Letter Proposal Templates, William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) who already in 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter the sixteenth century broke with the existing conventions of drama and General Example - Template placed the supernatural alongside the real world. In “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” the playwright applied a phenomenon called the dualism of the represented world, which means that fantasy should be represented equally with reality. REF. One night in the middle of summer the boundary between these two worlds was obliterated. The forest, which was the 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter | place of the action, became a place for the simultaneous operation of two states of consciousness: reality and dream. In this way, Shakespeare created an image resembling the Interview Evaluation original beliefs of the people or the Resignation fantasies of a child whose mind was not yet sufficiently affected by the suffering of the world and the things overlooked by adults. The forest was turned into a magical place with the presence of magic and elves.

Among the characters of the Free Sop Template Why Sop Is Used Standard drama, two circles could be distinguished: humans and elves. The first is a symbol of the ordinary and the mundane, while the 4+ Amazing Letter | second circle symbolizes the extraordinary and magic. Create Diagrams. Elves show that anything can happen. By being transformed physically into an ass, Bottom’s true character is 4+ Amazing Letter revealed. This was depicted by Edwin Landseer in his painting ‘Scene from Event Invitations & Corporate Invites A Midsummer Night’s Dream’.Elvish magic showed the impossibility of Resignation Letter, distinguishing dream from reality. In the words of Critical, Shakespeare: ‘The lunatic, the lover, and the poet, are of imagination all compact.’ REF. In Shakespeare’s ‘Macbeth’ the world resembles ghostly phantom apnea, which is rife with crime, and the scenery is immersed in the darkness of night. The theme is the desire to 4+ Amazing |, gain power, which Macbeth and his wife achieve by the murder of King Duncan. Critical | Tutor2u Business. After the crime both perpetrators have guilty consciences, which they cannot suppress. 4+ Amazing Letter. Dark thoughts and memories haunt both characters in dreams.

The crime which they have committed has led to 45 Free Is Used Standard, them believing every man was a threat to them as a potential enemy. In a dream Macbeth sees the spirit of 4+ Amazing Letter, a dead friend, Banquo. This means he is faced with a difficult choice. On the one hand there is the desire to gain power, on the other sensitivity and a sense of morality, which ultimately is victorious. Macbeth could no longer keep secret, the terrible crime which was haunting him every night. 5 Sponsorship & Sponsorship Proposal Templates. Nightmares also tormented his wife. Remorse disturbed his peace of mind. However, recurring nightmares still had a greater influence on his wife, and especially on Resignation | the psyche. This is confirmed by the words of Macbeth (ACT 2 SCENE 5) REF.

‘Methought I heard a voice cry, ‘Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep”the innocent sleep, Sleep that knits up the raveled sleave of care, The death of each day’s life, sore labor’s bath, Balm of hurt minds, great nature’s second course,

Chief nourisher in life’s feast.’ REF. The killing a man by Macbeth is the killing of dream, his own conscience. Event & Corporate Invites. The painting “Nightmare” by Henry Fuseli (1781) reflects the struggle of the protagonist of Macbeth and his wife to come to terms with the murder. The woman lying on the bed perfectly reflects their mental state. Moreover, the woman’s position suggests that she may be dreaming of something horrifying, manifesting as fear in the dreamer.

The painter has not left any specific instructions regarding its interpretation. It can be assumed that a woman lying on the bed is his beloved Anna Landolf. This would allow the discovery of an additional intimate sense. REF. ‘The Nightmare simultaneously offers both the image of a dream’by indicating the effect of the nightmare on the woman’and a dream image’in symbolically portraying the | sleeping vision.’ REF It is also unclear whether the woman is immersed in a dream or whether she is trying to Create, catch her last breath. The symbolism and Letter imagery of the Tefl: Skills Evaluation Form painting is very much exposed. The outer form is the “undercover” for what is important, which is Letter a nightmare of the spirit. Affinity Diagrams For Presentations. Within the Resignation Letter | symbolism there is a monkey ornament, which according to ancient times was the creature which most closely resembles to a human. Free Sop Template. 45 Free Sop Template Why Sop. However, in the art of the Middle Ages it symbolized the Letter essence of a degraded, creature hiding in the animal nature of man. REF Similar symbols associated with the character of the horse.

Additional evidence may be darkness, from which it emerges. ‘Sleep, the Cousin of Free Sop Template. Sop Template Standard, Death’ – Charles Sackville REF. Indeed the woman lying on the bed could be dead or just sleeping. During the Renaissance poets developed an awareness, not only of the 4+ Amazing Resignation importance od dreams but of unlimited imagination. The poets of the seventeenth century liked to compare dream to Business & Corporate, the state of 4+ Amazing, death. They even discussed the concept that human life ends in the sleep of death. – Miko??aj S??p Szarzy??ski (1550 ‘ 1581) REF. In European literature Romanticism emphasized the value of 5 Sponsorship & Sponsorship Templates, emotions and inspirations coming from the Resignation irrational. Visions, stemming from dreams or the mental, and sometimes the physical state caused by the interaction of drugs, served as excellent material to Business Event Invitations Event Invites, manifest the highest potential and skills of the artist.

Onirism which is an art form directly based on material from dreams, or which employs dream-like imagery, often embraces the entire composition of the artist’s work, especially the construction of the person and his relationship with the real, fantastic and spiritual world. (Drucker, 2006) In fact, the term Onirism in relation to art appeared in the twentieth century as a result of the achievements of the Surrealists, for whom creativity and onirism tendencies are very characteristic. The Surrealists were fascinated by hypnosis, myths and tales, tearing down the logical order of reality and investigating absurdity, dreams and mediumship which was thriving at the time of psychoanalysis. The Surrealists attributed on 4+ Amazing | enormous role to Resume Example - Template, unrestrained imagination. Oneiric tendencies were noticed and 4+ Amazing | disseminated in the 1960s and 1970s with the resurgent popularity of surrealism. (Jurewicz, 2014) The epithet “oneiric” is 5 Sponsorship & Sponsorship Proposal most commonly used to characterize the Resignation | artistic techniques, rather than the overall concept of the dream. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century symbolism and expressionism introduced dream images to Business Event & Corporate, the visual arts. Expressionism was also a literary movement and embraced later work. (Jouvet, 2000) August Strindberg coined the term “dream play” for narrative style, which does not apply the differentiations between fantasy and reality. Whereas others believed that sleep is a kind of escape from the world. ‘The Wedding’ (1901) defining work of Polish drama written at the turn of the Resignation Letter | 20th century by Stanis??aw Wyspia??ski (1869 – 1907) describes the perils of the national drive toward self-determination following the two unsuccessful uprisings against the Partitions of Poland, in November 1830 and January 1863. The author, by combining reality with fiction, evaluates Polish society facing an opportunity to Free 45 Free Sop Template Why Sop Is Used, regain independence. There are large number of symbols, which serve as criticisms of 4+ Amazing Letter |, inconsistency, lack of understanding and the motivation to fight for the country. Wyspiariski placed in his act realistic as well as fictional characters, ghosts and spirits.

There is How To Create no doubt that the whole of the Resignation Letter | second act of the drama is Critical Path Analysis | Tutor2u Business constructed from oneiric conventions. Resignation | Ghosts and spirits, which have symbolic importance, are merely the imagination of the authentic characters. Almost every one of them is a remembrance of the | Tutor2u past, the embodiment of their desires, fears and 4+ Amazing | aspirations. Their task is to unmasked the inner state of the General Example person to whomghost are appearing. The Poet is visited successively by the Black Knight a symbol of the nation’s past military glory, the Journalist, then by the court jester Sta??czy who is a conservative political sage and by the Ghost of Wernyhora, a paradigm of leadership for Poland. Wernyhora presents the Host with a golden horn symbolizing the national mission, and calls the Polish people to revolt. There is a mood of 4+ Amazing Resignation, horror, mystery, understatement, ambiguity, so it is not known whether the characters see spirits while they are awake, or they are merely a dream. Painting “B’?dne ko??o” (The Mad Circle) by Jacek Malczewski is an example of Critical Path | Tutor2u Business, a symbolic painting.

The painting presents quite a strange scene referring to the play ‘The Wedding ‘ In the center of the painting is located a ladder on it there is sitting little boy while numerous characters are dancing around him. Among them is impossible to distinguish between both the Resignation rural population, positioned on second plane of the painting, naked women and men in the foreground. The humans and the figure of the devil, that is, half-naked creature with hooves instead of feet. The painting is a composition closed, is kept in dark tones predominate, gray, black, brown only on the left side, where there are people of rural origin suddenly colours change in a very lively, much happier with a majority of red, yellow, blue. The image is & Sponsorship Templates very dynamic, but the full balance is maintained between one and the other side of the work. Malczewski’s painting sums up all the thoughts and values which carries with it drama ‘The Wedding’. The twentieth first century brought many amazing discoveries in the field of parapsychology, which allowed for a variety of interpretations of various phenomena in the area of the human mind.

It has been proved that the brain during sleep functions only 4+ Amazing |, ten percent. REF. What is happening with the rest? It is still a mystery to be solve. The dream is a kind of escape into the world of How To Create Affinity, fantasy, a condition in which a person is in no way limited’ even by the force of gravity.

Wislawa Szymborska (1923 -2012) demonstrated this in the poem “In Praise of Dreams”. In praise of dreams. I paint like Vermeer van Delft. I speak fluent Greek. and not just with the living.

that does what I want it to. and write mighty epics. as clearly as any venerable saint. My brilliance as a pianist. I fly the way we ought to, Falling from the roof,

I tumble gently to the grass. I’ve got no problem. breathing under water. I’ve been able to locate Atlantis. It’s gratifying that I can always. wake up before dying. As soon as war breaks out, I roll over on my other side. I’m a child of my age, but I don’t have to be.

A few years ago. And the night before last a penguin, The poem’s title makes the subject matter obvious. 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter | The subject shows the reader that during sleep, nothing is impossible. . One can become an outstanding painter fluent in different languages who plays the piano beautifully or soars high above the Tefl: Evaluation ground. The poet sees sleep as a land where anything can happen, an Letter |, endless realm of improbable things like two suns. Free Sop Template. Is Used. In the dream, death does not need to |, be feared. Each time, when all kinds of Path Analysis | Tutor2u, threat are revealed by simply opening the eyes one is again lying safely in bed cuddling a pillow.

Unknown corners of the earth can be explored; it is possible or to breathe underwater, we become better, we blur the boundary between the worlds of the 4+ Amazing Resignation | living and Free Sop Template. 45 Free Is Used the dead. In dreams, it is possible to meet different creatures, different people, familiar faces, relatives, and friends.. people who died a long time ago who appear to be alive. Resignation | Dreams have one common feature – they do not exist in the laws of logic that govern thinking in reality. In dreams different states and emotions are experienced, yet only the most shocking or the most important moments of sleep are remembered. It is Critical Path Analysis | Tutor2u not surprising that Szymborska devoted a poem to the praise of dreams for their uniqueness. 4+ Amazing | A dream is a second life; it is state of transition, in which people are the masters of their dreams. Apnea material began to be used as an Path | Tutor2u Business, inspiration for comics in the 1980s. For instance the popular comic strips of Winsor McCay. Artists began to illustrate their own dreams. In’ The Committee of Sleep’ the Harvard psychologist Deirdre explored material for media provided by dreams among many modernist works inspired by dreams she included paintings such as ‘Flag’ (1954’55) by Jasper Johns, most of the work of Jim Dine and 4+ Amazing Letter | Salvador Dali, novels ranging from ‘Sophie Choice’ directed by Alan J. Pakula, who adapted William Styron’s novel of the same name.

Works of Anne Rice and Stephen King, even films such as ‘3 Women’ directed by Robert Altman, ‘Wild Strawberries’ directed by Ingmar Bergman, ‘Dracula’ or even ‘Frankenstein’. Barrett also mentions that the song ‘Yesterday’ by Paul McCartney, was heard by him in a dream. (Belanger, 2005) Content coming from the dreams is still used for different purposes by 5 Sponsorship Letter & Sponsorship Proposal Templates, many contemporary artists. The exploitation of 4+ Amazing Letter, dreams is considered by some to give suitable psychological weigt to their work, regardless of artistic value. (Pells, 1973) CHAPTER THREE ‘ SURREALISM: THE DREAM MOVEMENT. Dreams have been an inseparable part of everyone’s life since time immemorial, and this is reflected in the fields of literature and art where the use of dreams as theme. Simultaneously, the discussion regarding dreams reached a new level of awareness in the western world due to the work of Sigmund Freud who introduced the concept of the unconscious as a field of research.

Freud’s theories greatly influenced the twentieth-century Surrealists who combined visionary impulses and expressionism placing great emphasis on the unconscious as a creative tool, with the assumption that the seemingly irrational content might contain much of relevant information, perhaps even more than the rational. Tefl: Evaluation. The aim of the Surrealists was to investigate the realm of the unconscious. They took the view that man is governed by forces beyond his conscious Ego, an idea introduced by Sigmund Freud. Although the Surrealists strongly embraced Freud’s theory he wrote letter to Stefan Zweig (20 July 1938), after meeting Salvador Dali, that he was “inclined to look upon surrealists, who have apparently chosen me for their patron saint, as absolute (let us say 95 per cent, like alcohol) cranks!” (Pontalis, Frontiers in Psychoanalysis, p.49) Films, particularly those of Bunuel have, to a large extent been responsible for spreading the Resignation Letter | concept of the dream. Some of How To Diagrams For Presentations, Bunuel’s sequences have been described as “an involuntary imitation of sleep.” (Solar, 2003) Film criticism popularized the epithet oneiric, but very often it is used interchangeably with the term “surreal” – regardless of whether it is a film created through surrealism or not.

Commonly, these terms apply to discontinuities in the film, the | scenes that are a contradiction of realistic logic and unexpected associations. The invention of film and animation has brought new opportunities to describe irrational events, but films composed entirely of dream-like images and content were still rare avant-garde. (Peterson, 1994) One of the most interesting movements in painting of the Tefl: Interview Skills Form twentieth century was Surrealism. Artists representing this style were using surprising ideas that were innovative, inspired by reality as well as dreams. Antonin Artaud states that, ‘Surrealism is not a style. It is the cry of a mind turning back on itself.’ (1997, p.3) Surrealism was founded in France and quickly gained followers. It expressed what is difficult to 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter, determine, allowed freedom of association, and 5 Sponsorship & Sponsorship Templates even expressed the irrational. The style was a revolt against classicism, realism, empiricism, rationalism, utilitarianism and previous conventions in 4+ Amazing Resignation Letter art.

The main feature of Surrealist painting was a visual expression of internal perception. Artists tried to Invitations & Corporate Event Invites, create images that disturbed the logical order of reality. Often these were grotesque visions, the borderline between reality, dream, fantasy, hallucinations and a movement away from rationalism. (Durozoi, 2002) The Surrealists, who attributed a major role to unrestrained imagination, also derived some ideas from Romanticism. They wanted to dramatize even seemingly ordinary events. Important for them also was the element of surprise, absurdity and nonsense. The Surreal images are shreds of Resignation |, disordered and illogical thoughts. Important inspirations for the Surrealists were Hieronymus Bosch’s (1450 ‘ 1516) paintings. Free Sop Template. Sop Template Standard. Art historian Walter Gibson described Bosch’s paintings as “a world of dreams [and] nightmares in which forms seem to flicker and | change before our eyes.” The Spaniard Felipe de Guevara wrote that the artist was regarded merely as “the inventor of Resume - Template, monsters and chimeras”. 4+ Amazing Resignation | Whereas a Dutch art historian Karel van Mander described Bosch’s work as “wondrous and Free Sop Template. 45 Free Sop Template Why Sop Standard strange fantasies (‘) often less pleasant than gruesome to look at.” The aim of the Surrealists was to investigate the realm of the unconscious. They took the view that man is governed by forces beyond his conscious ‘Ego’.

The Surrealists were fascinated by hypnosis, automatic writing, medium-ship which was thriving at the time of psychoanalysis. The most prominent psychoanalysis’s were Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. Although the Surrealists referred to the theories of Freud, he himself was utterly puzzled by the Surrealists. They Surrealists wanted to dramatize even seemingly ordinary events. Their images are shreds of disordered and illogical thoughts. Salvador Dali (1904 ‘ 1989) was one of the most outstanding artists who was highly influenced by Letter |, the world of Resume Example, dreams. 4+ Amazing Resignation. An example can be Dali’s most recognizable series of melting clocks, supposedly inspired by a dream about camembert cheese. ‘Dali transferred on canvas culinary materialistic dreams and obsessions. Symbolism is part of the Resume inherited culture of human nature. It should be remembered that new symbols are constantly being created and they join the old. Each symbol has its counterpart which is its translation or example.

The quantity and 4+ Amazing Resignation | quality symbol which humans use to express thoughts and desires, is, however, changed during the Free 45 Free Sop Template Standard course of life and depends on 4+ Amazing Resignation | the changing socio-cultural context. Because desires are suppressed during resting, they are revealed only in conditions of reduced censorship. The essence of dreams is the General - Template hallucinatory fulfilment of irrational impulses and desires. The formation of dreams involving two types of mental processes: one that creates thoughts of sleep and the other encodes these thoughts in such a way that they are irrational. Encoding is Resignation designed to conceal infantile desires, as well as those that are contrary to the principles of pleasure, but which are thought about in everyday life.’ (Jurewicz, 2014 p.7)

The 1929 silent film ‘Un Chien Andalou’ (An Andalusian Dog) by Salvador Dali and Luis Bu??uel is a Surrealistic potpourri of shocking, dream-influenced obscene non-related episodic clips with no purpose but merely to How To Create For Presentations, shock the viewer. The chronology of the Resignation Letter films is Business Invitations Invites chaotic and disjointed, there are no central characters to follow, it jumps from ‘once upon a time’ to ‘eight years later’ without any explanation whatsoever. ‘It uses dream logic in narrative flow that can be described in terms of the then-popular Freudian free association, presenting a series of tenuously related scenes.’ (The Generalist, 2014) The film is reminiscent of dream logic that requires no rhyme or reason, just like an actual dream. For centuries, people have been having dreams. Every night they enter into the world of Resignation, dream, an unknown world where it is possible to be anyone.

In dreams, it is possible to meet different creatures, different people, familiar faces, relatives, and friends… people who died a long time ago who appear to Analysis Business, be alive. Dreams have one common feature – they do not exist in the laws of logic that govern thinking in Resignation Letter reality. In dreams different states and emotions are experienced, yet only the most shocking, the Business Event & Corporate most important moments of Resignation Letter, sleep are remembered, and so it is with this film. The film includes ants crawling out of a man’s palm, a severed hand in the street and a shocking scene when a razor is held to a woman’s eyeball and an incision is promptly made. Bu??uel in his youth played outside surrounded by dead donkeys and Dali had a dream of ants poking out of his hand. Interview Evaluation Form. The film is a patchwork of scenes inspired by Dali’s and Bu??uel’s dreams. This dissertation has examined the importance and relevance of dreams in art and literature. It has shown that dreams can reveal the secrets of the past and present and predict the future.

Dreams may be evidence of supernatural power, and may provide an insight into the afterlife. Dreaming is a state of the union of body, mind and soul. It is a disclosure of unconscious and repressed psychological contents. Dreams are wonderfully mysterious vision, a manifestation of different dimension of reality. According to Freud, most experiences are pushed out of the realm of consciousness into the subconscious, where they remain involuntarily.

This realm of the subconscious is not without influence on people’s lives, because dreams are the 4+ Amazing expression, a disclosure – they represent symbolically all that is feared and loved. What people yearn for often a matter of great surprise themselves. Other theorist, Gustav Jung stated that dreams are influenced by ancient culture, communications and the experience of the old religions dormant in the subconscious what might be called the unconscious memory. Emerson postulated that there is a relationship between personality and dream, whereas Henri Bergson argued that dreams are caused by different physical stimuli. Create. Sleep can be a key factor in the creation of the represented world or create a composition those rovers between reality and fiction, between a waking state and a dream. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom History essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised History work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This History essay was submitted to |, us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Dreams – theories, history and film . Available from: [06-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on Sop Template Is Used our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 18-02-17 - Tudor women 26-11-16 - Hungary – history 21-11-16 - 1913 Strike #038; lockout 07-11-16 - Haitian Revolution 06-11-16 - Pearl Harbor “A date which will live in infamy” 05-11-16 - Video game industry – USA - IMPACT OF THOUSAND YEAR LONG MUSLIM REIGN ON SUB CONTINENT - Displacement and trauma suffered by women during Partition of India post colonisation - Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Martin Luther King 03-11-16 - Impact of the Resignation Letter | Colored Revolutions on Critical Path | Tutor2u Business the Egyptian revolution.

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