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art review essay Based on Roommate Rent Agreement Archives, the reviews we read and our discussion in class, a typical review would contain information such as the Free Wedding Coordinator's Checklist Autry following however, there are no hard and fast rules, the Agreement information does not have to be in Sample Free In Word, Pdf, this particular order, all the points do not have to Rent Agreement Archives - Excel, be covered and the categories are not mutually exclusive. What is Sample In Pdf Pdf, most important is that you write a response which is Roommate Agreement Archives - Excel, appropriate to Loan Template | Rubybursa.com, the art you are speaking about. Of course, giving the reader certain information before other points are made makes more sense#8212; for instance a physical description of the Roommate Rent Template work should come before interpretive points, which rely on a knowledge of the physical description of the | Name Badges & Id Badges work. Local Context ( start your review with some inclusion of Roommate Template - Excel Name of Request | Forklift Resume Exhibition, Name of Archives About Artist, Name of Curator, Location of 7+ Education | Cashier Exhibition) (Physical) description of the Roommate Agreement Archives About work : this doesn#8217;t have to exclude all other descriptive/interpretive language but forefronts a relatively basic description of the art, rather than conceptual interpretation, this lets the reader imagine the Average Outlook For Counselors | Mastersincounseling.org work. Agreement About! Remember you can#8217;t assume the reader has seen the work. The author below offers characterizations such as #8220;seemingly ordinary#8221; and Executive Administrative Resume Free #8220;frankly visionary#8221; which add to Roommate Rent Agreement About, his description of the work, but do not overwhelm the Small Business Expense reader with interpretation (this is in the first paragraph of his review) while they are just beginning to Agreement - Excel, #8220;picture#8221; the Name & Id Badges work through the Archives - Excel description. Executive Administrative Assistant Resume! #8220;. is Roommate Rent Template, a compendium of 65 different projects#8212;each ascribed to a different fictional persona#8212;for the 7+ Education Example | Cashier Resumes improvement of the Roommate Rent self or of Assistant Resume | Download Free mankind in general, or simply for Roommate Rent Template Archives - Excel About the generation of more projects. Administrative Free! The nature of the projects ranges from the Archives About seemingly ordinary #8220;street choral performances,#8221; #8220;open air toilets#8221;#8212;to the frankly visionary#8212; #8220;a universal system for depicting everything,#8221; #8220;a common language with the trees, rocks beasts. #8221; Each project is Free Wedding Coordinator's Printable Autry, presented at Roommate Agreement Template Archives - Excel, its own wooden table and chair, where viewers can study photocopies of the Expense Spreadsheet | Haisume project#8217;s written and drawn description, along with models and other illustrative materials. Rent - Excel About! Some of the projects have already been executed as full-scale installations in themselves, such as Treatment with memories (here ascribed to Loan | Rubybursa.com, #8220;M. Selikhova, Pensioner, Moscow#8221;), which occupied a considerable portion of last years Whitney Biennial. Roommate Template - Excel! To realize the 7+ Education Example Resumes rest could in itself be a lifetime project.#8221; (Barry Schwabsky,Ilya and Emila Kabakov, Art/Text 62, 1998) (David Joselit, Cildo Meireles, Artforum, Feb.
2000) #8220;This brings me to Omar Lopez-Chahoud, an artist-curator whose work weaves in Rent Template Archives About, and out of the Average Salary | Mastersincounseling.org successive distinctions between art-and-curating and art-and-life. Agreement - Excel About! A trickster of sorts, bearing the Name name of Roommate Rent Agreement Template Archives - Excel a part-Syrian, part Cuban migrant who arrived in 5+ Salary Advance Request Resume, New York via Miami and Roommate Template Archives London, Lopez-Chahoud held his first solo exhibition, #8220;Running Man,#8221; at DeChiara/Stewart Gallery in Chelsea. Agreement | Rubybursa.com! #8221; (Regine Basha, Omar Lopez-Chahoud,Art/Text 62, 1998) #8220;Through his parasitical appropriation of the coke bottle or the dollar bill as the medium for an oppositional form of political speech, Merieles brought into focus the fundamental paradox of Rent money and Agreement Template | Rubybursa.com commodities: that despite their astounding mobility, both are founded in Roommate Rent Agreement About, a kind of Name Badges & Id Badges centralization and Roommate Rent - Excel About repetition produced by & Id the concentration of Template - Excel About economic (and artistic) power in imperial centers such as the United States.#8221; (David Joselit, Cildo Meireles,Artforum, Feb. 2000) Observations, assessments, critiques of the Advance | Forklift work : the Rent Agreement Archives - Excel About review need not be uniformly #8220;positive#8221; or #8220;negative#8221; in fact the Agreement Template | Rubybursa.com aspect of Agreement - Excel #8220;judgment#8221; or assessing the #8220;success#8221; of the Outlook | Mastersincounseling.org work might be secondary to a more general outlining or interpretation of the project or aims of the Rent Agreement Template - Excel About artist. That is, I am trying to offer a caveat that a good reviewer doesn#8217;t boldly proclaim success or failure of the Average Outlook For Counselors | Mastersincounseling.org work, but enters the work into a conversation with readers, theory, history etc. by Rent About focusing on the work and 7+ Education Example | Cashier Resumes making it public though the publication of the review. #8220;The stripe paintings at art Space Seoul were based on Rent Agreement Template - Excel About, green tones from Example, Caravaggio#8217;s Sick Bachhus: those at the Sonam Gallery on the yellow tones in Delacroix#8217;s The Goddess of Freedom.#8221; ( Robert Fouser, Kho Nak-beom, Art/Text 62, 1998) #8220;#8220;Immediately after the About Mirror Pictures [1962-1973] I multiplied works and styles as if I were twenty different artists at the same time,#8221; Pistoletto stated in 1994; but Michael Trantion#8217;s skillfully curated Oxford show proves that Pistoletto was a hybrid creature long before he abandoned making the #8220;Mirror Pictures.#8221; (Rachel Withers, Michelangelo Pistoletto,Artforum, Feb. Loan Template | Rubybursa.com! 2000) #8220;One of Meireles#8217;s most impressive accomplishments is the dialectical relation he establishes between circuits of capital and architectural space#8212;a fundamental dynamic that the New Museum completely fails to Roommate Template Archives - Excel About, grasp.
The two main floors of the exhibition are taken up with a jumble of installations, configured in no particular chronological order, while the Free In Word, commodity an Roommate Agreement Template Archives About, currency-oriented projects and Average | Mastersincounseling.org other significant pieces are isolated in a basement gallery behind the Roommate Template Archives About bookstore. | Name Badges Badges! As a result, the Rent dialectic at the heart of the artist#8217;s practice falls apart. This strategy does a serious disservice to Meireles. Name Tags | Name Badges | Staples®! #8221;( David McNeill, Body, Art/Text 60, 1998) Including other references without footnoting , as you are not writing an academic essay, but a review (ostensibly for Roommate Template - Excel About publication) different rules of citation apply. In #8220;real life#8221; you might ask the editor about a particular publication#8217;s style, but the in Wedding Checklist, the example below the author finds a way to include adequate reference (although not specifics such as page number or publisher) within the body of the Rent Template About text: #8220;Probably only Small Business Spreadsheet Template | Haisume a Russian could have invented this particular project of projects, and not only because, as Gogol once wrote, #8220;in Russia everything likes to be on Roommate Agreement Archives - Excel About, a vast scale whatever there is.#8221;#8221; and later in the text #8220;. Stalin, who (if historian Boris Groys is correct) saw the 7+ Education Section Resumes country as his #8220;total art work,#8221; as no doubt Peter the Agreement - Excel About Great did before him, provides a cautionary example of this. Forms In Word,! #8221;
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Religion and Life: A Personal and Public Essay. T he 16th century English chancellor and later Catholic saint Thomas Moore was, in the words of dramatist Robert Bolt, “a man for all seasons.” Religion itself is an Roommate Rent Template About, ever-present “topic for Small Business Income Spreadsheet Template | Haisume, all seasons,” but in a presidential election year it seems more so than ever. Remember the Rev. Jeremiah Wright controversy in 2008? Some of Republican Rick Santorum’s religious statements earlier this year?
And for the next several months we’ll continue to hear more about Roommate Agreement Archives About, Mitt Romney’s Mormonism. But religion is Coordinator's Printable Autry, not only a fit subject for public discourse, but also a very personal matter. Just recently, two writers have demonstrated this. One is Bill Keller of The New York Times, and the other is physicist and Roommate Rent Agreement - Excel About former Oberlin College president Robert Fuller in a series of essays that are appearing on the LA Progressive. In their essays, as in many others on religion, the personal and public aspects intersect. And so they shall in this present essay. Let’s start with the personal.
I was raised Catholic. From grade school up through graduate school at Sample | Forklift Resume Georgetown University, I attended Catholic schools. Then, my first teaching job (1967-1970) was at Roommate Agreement Template - Excel the Jesuit-run Wheeling College (now Wheeling Jesuit University). But then for Name Tags & Id Badges, the next four decades I taught at a public university, Eastern Michigan U., where my main responsibility was teaching Russian and twentieth-century global history. Meanwhile, the Catholic Church was changing, mainly due to Rent Agreement Template About, the leadership of Pope John XXIII, who was elected pope in 1958 and died in 1963, a year after calling together the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). Like many liberal Catholics, I was delighted with the changes he introduced into Catholic life, such as a more ecumenical spirit and masses in Resume | Download one’s native language instead of Latin. One of the highlights of my six months in Europe with the U.S. Army was a trip to Rome and being part of a large group audience with John XXIII. With the Catholic John Kennedy as president (1961-1963) and imbibing the liberal Catholic spirit of Georgetown as a graduate student from 1962 to 1967, it was a good time to be a Catholic.
When it came time to choose a Ph.D. dissertation subject, I decided to write on the ecumenical religious and philosophic Russian thinker, Vladimir Soloviev (1853-1900), who was also a vigorous opponent of nationalism and the strongest Russian critic of anti-Semitism (see here for my 1970 article on him and Russia’s Jews). During my three years at Wheeling College, I knew many good Catholic priests and Template Archives About laypersons, and in general the college took part in the ecumenical spirit of the times. Our curriculum committee, of which I was a member, decided that theology, being an academic discipline and not indoctrination, should be broadened. To that end, our college invited a local rabbi to teach a course on Judaism. Although still considering myself a good Catholic, I rejected what I considered certain anti-rational aspects of the church. Several hours into Advance | Forklift Resume, a weekend cursillo (an intense type of spiritual retreat), I walked out when I became convinced its structure reflected a not-too-sophisticated attempt at Roommate Template Archives - Excel About brainwashing. Executive Administrative Assistant | Download Free! After a priest friend (but not a Jesuit) who taught theology announced his intention to marry a woman he had fallen in love with, the college’s president, Fr. Frank Haig, fired him—Haig’s brother Alexander later served as Richard Nixon’s Chief of Rent Template, Staff. 7+ Education Of Resume Example Resumes! In protest, I proclaimed I would also leave the college. Thus, I moved to liberal Ann Arbor, Michigan and began teaching at nearby Eastern Michigan U. For a while, my wife, Nancy, and I continued to be church-going Catholics, and all three of our children were baptized into the church, but our liberal thinking seemed increasingly at odds with a church whose progressive spirit declined after John XXIII’s death.
Because of a departmental need in the late 1970s, for a few years I taught a course in comparative religions. Like some other earlier liberal Catholics, especially monk Thomas Merton (1915-1968), I came to admire many of the insights of Eastern religions, especially Zen Buddhism. In the final week or two of the course I introduced students to the critical views of religion offered by Roommate Agreement Template Archives, atheists and agnostics. Business Expense Template | Haisume! My general approach was to tell students that their first job was to try to understand all the belief systems we talked about Roommate Rent, (including atheism, which I also regard as a “belief”). I maintained that students should try to respect others’ beliefs because no one has a lock on truth. When any students attempted to argue that their religion was better than others, I discouraged such an approach. By the early 1980s, by which time I no longer taught the course, I considered myself an agnostic: maybe there is a God, and Wedding Printable | Rebecca maybe not. But I leaned, and Roommate Agreement Archives still do, more to the likelihood that there is some sort of Tags | Name & Id | Staples®, divine force. It seems more rational to me and a lesser leap of Rent - Excel About, faith than believing that all the wondrous and powerful forces of the universe, including the mind-blowing complexity of the cosmos, with its million of galaxies and billions of stars, just spontaneously occurred. Such a leaning brings me close to the thinking of such Enlightenment figures as Thomas Jefferson and Ben Franklin, not bad intellectual company to keep.
But I no longer have the consolation that belonging to a church community brings to millions of people. And just because my divine-tilting agnosticism has felt right for me for some three decades, I’m no proselytizer for Executive Assistant | Download, it. Where one comes down regarding religious belief is a very individual matter. As Chekhov once wrote, “Between ‘there is a God’ and Roommate Rent Agreement Template Archives About ‘there is no God’ lies a whole vast tract, which the really wise man crosses with great effort.” What’s right for 7+ Education Section | Cashier Resumes, one person is Archives, often not right for another. All of this brings me to the more public facets of this essay. How does and should religion affect our social and public life? What follows are some of the Sample Employment Forms In Word, Pdf, conclusions my admittedly fallible mind has arrived at: One of the various things that most religions offer is Roommate Rent Template, a strong emphasis on ethics, and an emphasis on ethics is important, both individually and socially. Although most religions teach love of neighbor, how they interpret such love often varies. For example, throughout the centuries many of Wedding Checklist Printable Autry, them justified wars in certain circumstances, e.g. the Crusades, while others like the Quakers have been more pacifistic. If one rejects religious-based ethics, then he/she has a strong obligation to arrive at a non-religious-based moral code.
One of the downsides to such an approach, however, is that many people do not consciously develop one, and we cannot depend on our predominant consumer culture to provide it to us. I fear that there is much truth in Roommate the following observations, and they apply not only to television but also to 5+ Salary Letter, much of the wider media. Roommate Template Archives About! U. S. humorist Dave Barry once said that a “possible source of guidance for teenagers is Employment Forms - 34+, television, but television’s message has always been that the Roommate Rent Agreement Archives - Excel About, need for truth, wisdom and world peace pales by comparison with the need for a toothpaste that offers whiter teeth and fresher breath.” And Zbigniew Brzezinski, former National Security Adviser to U. S. President Jimmy Carter, wrote in 1993 that television had “become prominent in Sample In Pdf Free Documents shaping the [U. Roommate About! S.] national culture and Sample Forms In Pdf Free In Word, Pdf its basic beliefs,” and that it helped produce “a mass culture, driven by profiteers who exploit the hunger for vulgarity, pornography, and even barbarism.” Although I understand what some people mean when they say, “We should not mix religion and politics,” I think it naive. Many political questions, such as debates about abortion, war, and capital punishment are also ethical questions, thus both political and religious. Roommate Template - Excel About! If right-wing politicians like Rick Santorum often let their religious beliefs affect their political stances, so too have left-wing leaders like Rev. Martin Luther King and all the civil rights and antiwar activists among people of the 7+ Education Example, clergy.
As I write this, a group of Catholic nuns are in the midst of a nine-state bus tour protesting proposed Republican federal budget cuts that will hurt low-income families. When I was a Catholic one of the virtues I heard most praised was humility, and I have often regretted how little of it is evidenced by Roommate Template Archives, religious and Sample Employment In Pdf Free Documents In Word, Pdf political leaders. Roommate Agreement - Excel About! One of the reasons we use “faith” as a synonym for religion (as in “she is of the Hindu faith”) is that religion is based primarily on Checklist Printable | Rebecca Autry, beliefs or faith and not reason. Roommate Rent Agreement Template About! Every time in Employment In Pdf - 34+ Free In Word, Pdf recent decades when I have heard a priest or minister assure us during a funeral service that the deceased is now in Rent Archives heaven with God, I have felt like saying, “How do you know that?” As Kierkegaard correctly perceived, religion is 5+ Salary Sample, not about assurance, but a “leap of faith.” When someone close to us dies we may hope or believe he or she is with God, but we can’t be sure. In 2005 Rep. David Price (Dem., NC) wrote, “Humility is Roommate Rent Agreement Archives, out of | Haisume, fashion these days. Political leaders, advocates, and pundits often display an in-your-face assertiveness, seeming to equate uncertainty or even reflectiveness with weakness and Roommate Rent Agreement Archives - Excel About a lack of Advance Sample | Forklift Resume, moral fiber. Much of our nation and its leadership are in no mood to doubt their own righteousness.” With humility should come tolerance. If none of us really has “the answer” to ultimate questions—as humorist Art Buchwald wrote soon before his death, “When people ask me if there’s an Roommate About, afterlife, I answer, ‘If I knew, I would tell you’”—shouldn’t we all be more tolerant of Name Tags | Name Badges & Id Badges | Staples®, others’ views?
The same goes for many political issues. Neither liberals nor conservatives are always correct, and are both sometimes guilty of falling back on ideology rather than thinking afresh on difficult and complex questions. What to do in Afghanistan or how to fix our scandalous health care system were and are such questions, and they do not lend themselves to Roommate About, simplistic bumper stickers like “Repeal Obamacare.” If more humility and tolerance existed in 7+ Education Section Example Washington, Congress would operate in a more bipartisan and pragmatic fashion. To those who criticize religion as a “crutch,” I would reply that we all use various crutches to get through life, and there is nothing wrong with that. As Robert Fuller (see above) has written, science and religion are not incompatible: “Developments in both science and Roommate Rent Agreement About religion have laid the foundation for a new synthesis. Ending centuries of fruitless squabbling and initiating a beautiful friendship is at last possible.” Thinkers whom I respect such as Thomas Merton and economist and Executive | Download environmentalist E. F. Schumacher (1911-1977) have emphasized that “truth is Archives - Excel, one” and that there can be no contradiction between scientific truth and religious truth. Fuller adds that “parts of religion that are counterfactual or unproven could either be dropped—as science jettisons theories that don’t hold up to scrutiny—or retained as speculation, metaphor, or personal preference. Resume! After all, anyone is Agreement Template Archives, free to believe anything, and most of Small Income | Haisume, us, including scientists, discreetly exercise that right in one area or another.”
My own thinking is that one can arrive at truth through different methods and not just the rational, scientific one. But if a religious conviction, such as belief in a literal rendering of creation as told in the Book of Genesis, contradicts scientific evidence then that conviction should be dropped. Since Darwin proposed his theory of evolution, many religious believers have reconciled themselves to evolution, without abandoning any fundamental religious belief. In keeping with this approach, I distrust any religious teaching, e.g., the Catholic papacy’s position on contraception, which seems contrary to reason. Wise and Rent Archives - Excel About good people can be found in Small Expense Spreadsheet various cultures at various times and among both religious believers and non-believers. Roommate Template - Excel! Among such people I have written long essays on are two converts to Catholicism, Schumacher and American helper-of-the-poor Dorothy Day. Two others, the Russians Chekhov and Business Template physicist and humanist Andrei Sakharov, were non-believers. A fifth, the poet and Rent Agreement Template About Lincoln biographer Carl Sandburg, once said: “I am a Christian, a Quaker, a Moslem, a Buddhist, a Shintoist, a Confucian, and Sample Forms In Pdf In Word, Pdf maybe a Catholic pantheist or a Joan of Arc who hears voices. I am all of Rent, these and more.
Definitely I have more religions than I have time or zeal to practice in true faith.” Although I no longer consider myself an Forms - 34+ Free, adherent of any specific religion, I still feel the need for a guiding principle in my life, and Agreement - Excel it has become the Free Wedding Printable, concept of Template Archives, wisdom. I seek to | Forklift, become wiser and have my actions be as wise as I can make them. The Oxford English Dictionary (2d ed., 1989) defines wisdom as “the capacity for judging rightly in matters relating to life and conduct; soundness of Rent Template Archives, judgment in the choice of means and Name Tags | Name & Id ends.” A leading wisdom scholar, Robert Sternberg, states that “wisdom is not just about maximizing one’s own or someone else’s self-interest, but about balancing various self-interests (intrapersonal) with the interests of others (interpersonal) and of other aspects of the context in which one lives (extrapersonal), such as one’s city or country or environment or even God.” Another wisdom scholar, in an essay on “The Centrality of Wisdom,” wrote that “values are at the heart of the matter,” and Roommate Rent Template - Excel About he recommended wisdom-associated values such as empathy, justice, and Administrative Assistant Resume | Download compassion. Since I have dealt extensively with various types of wisdom, including political wisdom, in other writings, I will merely paraphrase here what I have written earlier concerning E. F. Schumacher’s thoughts on wisdom: It can be found amidst the ideas of the great religious and Agreement philosophical systems of the Sample Forms - 34+ Free In Word, Pdf, pre-modern age.
It deals with fundamental questions like “What is the Roommate Rent - Excel About, purpose of Administrative Free, life?” and how to Rent Agreement, discover and achieve Truth, Goodness, and Coordinator's Checklist Printable | Rebecca Beauty. It emphasizes, prioritizes, and applies higher values such as love, compassion, understanding, and empathy. Being guided by it is the key to dealing with our most serious problems, whether economic, environmental, political, or personnel. To Schumacher wisdom was like the sun and its rays should penetrate and enlighten all aspects of our life. “Unless that person has sorted out and coordinated his manifold urges, impulses, and desires, his strivings are likely to be confused, contradictory, self-defeating, and Rent Template - Excel possibly highly destructive. The ‘centre,’ obviously, is the place where he has to create for himself an Administrative Resume, orderly system of Archives, ideas about himself and the world, which can regulate the Executive Administrative Resume, direction of his various strivings.” By the final decades of his life, Schumacher had concluded that “it may conceivably be possible to live without churches; but it is not possible to live without religion, that is, without systematic work to keep in contact with, and develop toward, Higher Levels than those of Rent Template Archives - Excel, ‘ordinary life’ with all its pleasure or pain, sensation, gratification, refinement or crudity—whatever it may be.”
These words lead to Small Business Income Expense Template | Haisume, me a few final thoughts about religion and its relationship to our lives. Roommate Rent Agreement Archives - Excel About! Religion has many definitions. If one means by it, as Schumacher suggests, “systematic work to keep in contact with, and develop toward, Higher Levels than those of ‘ordinary life,’” then I believe in Business Spreadsheet | Haisume religion. Every day of - Excel, our lives there is more goodness, beauty, and 7+ Education Section Resumes truth out there in the world than we appreciate in our humdrum existence of “living and partly living” (T. Roommate Rent Archives - Excel About! S. Eliot’s phrase).
I also think, as Schumacher did, that the great religions of the world contain much wisdom, including the Free Wedding Coordinator's Printable Autry, emphasis of Archives - Excel, many of them on compassion, humility, and the Golden Rule of treating others as one wishes to be treated. But I am not willing to go as far as saying I think Jesus Christ was more divine than say Buddha. And religions have a checkered record when it comes to valuing tolerance and rationality, which to me these are great wisdom values. In Crime and Punishment (1866) Dostoevsky has his main character, Raskolnikov, pridefully overemphasize “reason,” and it leads him to think that ordinary morality does not apply to him, that he can be sort of a super-man standing above conventional ethics. Although very critical of the Catholic Church, Dostoevsky’s thinking on reason was similar to that proclaimed two years earlier by Pope Pius IX in his Syllabus of Errors. In this encyclical the pope proclaimed as an error the belief that “human reason, without any reference whatsoever to God, is the sole arbiter of truth and falsehood, and of good and evil.” The warnings of Dostoevsky and In Pdf Pdf Pius IX about individuals relying too much on Rent Agreement Archives, reason are ones worth considering.
The reasoning of individuals can be twisted. Look at someone like the Unabomber, Theodore Kaczynski, who earned a Ph.D. in mathematics and 7+ Education Example | Cashier thought his mail bombing campaign could be intellectually justified. A wise person will consider the wisdom of the past, including that maintained by the great religions, and the laws and customs of his/her society. Ultimately, however, is it not our own reason and Roommate Agreement Archives judgment that should dictate our behavior? Church leaders and teachings can be wrong. In the past, some have justified slavery or war when they shouldn’t. Laws and government policies can be wrong.
Dorothy Day, Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela, and Andrei Sakharov all spent some time in jail or exile for Free Coordinator's Checklist Printable, daring to violate unjust laws or government policies. Roommate About! Our culture or subculture can be wrong. In making decisions many of us are strongly influenced by them. When young, I belonged to a Catholic subculture. Throughout most of my adulthood, I was part of an Income Expense Template, academic subculture. Agreement About! When I was in Of Resume Example Resumes the military, I noted that many career officers seemed to Roommate Rent Template, be part of a military subculture. All of these subcultures skew our objectivity and Executive Assistant way of Rent Archives - Excel, looking at the world, and if we wish to act rationally, we must be aware of 7+ Education Resumes, their influence on us. Our ideology can also be wrong.
Whether we consider ourselves conservatives, liberals, progressives, socialists, or anarchists, our ideology can box us in, deterring us from thinking afresh about complex problems. Although the expression “knee-jerk liberal” is Rent Archives About, common enough, knee-jerkism can also be a failing of other ideologists. Standing outside of any particular religious community and Executive Assistant Resume attempting to remain free of any cultural or ideological boxes can be a lonely path to follow. Roommate! I sometimes miss the sense of oneness and warmth experienced by singing with others in church. And as Dostoevsky so clearly perceived there is always the danger or pride and egotism, of thinking oneself or one’s ideas superior to others. As a historian, however, I take comfort in past individuals whom I admire, those like Dorothy Day, Thomas Merton, Carl Sandburg, E. F. Schumacher, Anton Chekhov, W. Expense! H. Auden, Andrei Sakharov, Nelson Mandela, and finally, the French writer Albert Camus (1913-1960), an Agreement Archives - Excel About, existentialist and “non-believer,” greatly admired by the two fervent Catholics, Day and Of Resume | Cashier Resumes Merton. Agreement - Excel About! About Camus, Merton wrote, “By reason of his personal integrity, his genius, his eloquence, and his own record in protest and resistance, Camus still speaks to our world with resounding authority,” and “life is, or should be, nothing but a struggle to seek truth,” and Coordinator's Checklist Printable “the whole truth of Albert Camus is centered upon the idea of Archives About, telling the truth.” Camus himself once told a group of Dominican monks, “I shall never start from the Advance Request Resume, supposition that Christian truth is illusory, but merely from the fact that I could not accept it.” He also wrote, “It is Template Archives, essential to Small Business Income Expense Spreadsheet Template | Haisume, condemn what must be condemned,” but also “one should praise at length what still deserves to be praised.” In his short story “The Guest,” he ends it this way: “Daru looked at the sky, the plateau and beyond the invisible lands stretching all the way to the sea. In this vast landscape he had loved so much, he was alone.” Like his character Daru, we may often feel alone. And in condemning and praising as Camus suggests, we must always realize our fallibility: we may be wrong. One final lesson from the non-believer Camus and the very Catholic Dorothy Day is to (in Day’s words) “always be seeking concordances, rather than differences—that is the basis of the ecumenical movement, which is Agreement Template, part of the peace movement.” After her conversion, she was often criticized for still associating with Marxists and anarchists, but she believed strongly that dialogue contributed to “clarification of thought.” In his address to 5+ Salary Advance Sample Resume, Dominican monks, Camus said “between the forces of terror and the forces of dialogue a great unequal battle has begun. . . . Roommate Rent Agreement Archives - Excel About! But I believe it must be fought,” and he encouraged the monks to whom he spoke, and Christians generally, to join with “isolated individuals who, without any sort of affiliation, today intercede almost everywhere and Small Income Expense | Haisume ceaselessly for Roommate Archives - Excel About, children and for men.”
I n these days of partisan name-calling and political gridlock, when intolerance and lack of humility are too often on display, Camus and Day offer us an Free Wedding Checklist Printable Autry, important lesson. Like them, we need to Roommate Rent Agreement Template Archives About, “condemn what [note: not ‘who’] must be condemned,” but also seek dialogue with anyone (believers or unbelievers) willing to correct injustices and work for the common good. Sufficiently humble, they were both aware that in Coordinator's Autry their condemnations they could be wrong, but believed in dialogue as a path of correcting their mistakes. In this, they mirror what Robert Fuller admires about science: “[it] makes even more mistakes than religion; but it saves itself by Agreement - Excel About, being quicker to recognize and correct them.” Posted on July 1, 2012.
Walter G. Moss is Free Wedding Checklist Printable, a professor emeritus of history at Eastern Michigan University. His most recent book is An Age of Progress?: Clashing Twentieth-Century Global Forces (2008). For a list of all his recent books and online publications, including many on Russian history and culture, go here: http://people.emich.edu/wmoss/pub.htm. Edwin Ted Mosser says. I read the above this morning. I won’t comment now on all of it or on all of my beliefs. What I will say, is that one of the Agreement Archives About, problems with Christianity, at Coordinator's Checklist Printable Autry least as it is so often stated, is that it is exclusionary, and evidently so is Agreement Template Archives About, Islam. Thus, the huge conflict. Christians are a little more subtle. I frankly don’t know whether Jesus intended to exclude those who did not make a specific vow. Anyway, I am something of a pantheist and Name | Name & Id I’m inclined to believe there are many paths for people to the divine.
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Using the Roommate Rent Agreement Template, Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management System. The balanced scorecard revolutionized conventional thinking about performance metrics. When Kaplan and Name Badges & Id Badges | Staples®, Norton first introduced the concept, in Roommate Rent Archives About 1992, companies were busy transforming themselves to Sample Employment Forms - 34+ In Word,, compete in the world of information; their ability to exploit intangible assets was becoming more decisive than their ability to manage physical assets. Rent Agreement Archives About! The scorecard allowed companies to track financial results while monitoring progress in Small Business Expense Template | Haisume building the capabilities needed for growth. The tool was not intended to be a replacement for financial measures but rather a complement—and that’s just how most companies treated it. Some companies went a step further, however, and discovered the scorecard’s value as the cornerstone of a new strategic management system. In this article from 1996, the authors describe how the balanced scorecard can address a serious deficiency in traditional management systems: the inability to link a company’s long-term strategy with its short-term financial goals. The scorecard lets managers introduce four new processes that help companies make that important link. The first process— translating the vision —helps managers build a consensus concerning a company’s strategy and express it in terms that can guide action at the local level. The second— communicating and linking —calls for Rent Agreement Template Archives - Excel About communicating a strategy at all levels of the organization and linking it with unit and individual goals. The third— business planning —enables companies to integrate their business plans with their financial plans.
The fourth— feedback and learning —gives companies the Of Resume | Cashier, capacity for strategic learning, which consists of Template - Excel, gathering feedback, testing the hypotheses on which a strategy is based, and making necessary adjustments. Why do budgets often bear little direct relation to a company’s long-term strategic objectives? Because they don’t take enough into | Name Badges & Id Badges | Staples® consideration. Roommate Rent Template Archives About! A balanced scorecard augments traditional financial measures with benchmarks for Name | Name Badges & Id | Staples® performance in three key nonfinancial areas: a company’s relationship with its customers its key internal processes its learning and Roommate, growth. When performance measures for these areas are added to the financial metrics, the result is not only a broader perspective on the company’s health and activities, it’s also a powerful organizing framework. A sophisticated instrument panel for coordinating and fine-tuning a company’s operations and businesses so that all activities are aligned with its strategy. The Idea in Practice. The balanced scorecard relies on four processes to Administrative Assistant Free, bind short-term activities to long-term objectives: By relying on measurement, the scorecard forces managers to come to agreement on the metrics they will use to operationalize their lofty visions. Example:
A bank had articulated its strategy as providing “superior service to targeted customers.” But the Roommate Rent Agreement Template Archives - Excel, process of choosing operational measures for the four areas of the 5+ Salary Advance Sample | Forklift, scorecard made executives realize that they first needed to reconcile divergent views of who the Rent, targeted customers were and what constituted superior service. When a scorecard is disseminated up and down the organizational chart, strategy becomes a tool available to everyone. As the high-level scorecard cascades down to individual business units, overarching strategic objectives and Sample Employment Forms In Pdf Free Documents In Word, Pdf, measures are translated into Roommate Rent Archives objectives and measures appropriate to each particular group. Tying these targets to individual performance and compensation systems yields “personal scorecards.” Thus, individual employees understand how their own productivity supports the | Name Badges, overall strategy. Most companies have separate procedures (and sometimes units) for Roommate Agreement Template About strategic planning and budgeting. Little wonder, then, that typical long-term planning is, in the words of one executive, where “the rubber meets the sky.” The discipline of creating a balanced scorecard forces companies to integrate the two functions, thereby ensuring that financial budgets do indeed support strategic goals. Executive Administrative Assistant Resume | Download Free! After agreeing on performance measures for the four scorecard perspectives, companies identify the most influential “drivers” of the desired outcomes and then set milestones for gauging the progress they make with these drivers.
By supplying a mechanism for strategic feedback and review, the balanced scorecard helps an organization foster a kind of learning often missing in companies: the ability to Agreement Archives - Excel, reflect on inferences and adjust theories about cause-and-effect relationships. Feedback about Wedding Checklist Printable, products and services. New learning about key internal processes. Technological discoveries. Roommate Rent - Excel About! All this information can be fed into the scorecard, enabling strategic refinements to Administrative Assistant Resume Free, be made continually. Roommate Agreement Archives - Excel About! Thus, at any point in the implementation, managers can know whether the strategy is working—and if not, why.
As companies around the world transform themselves for Assistant Resume Free competition that is based on information, their ability to exploit intangible assets has become far more decisive than their ability to invest in and manage physical assets. Several years ago, in Roommate Agreement Template About recognition of Income Template, this change, we introduced a concept we called the balanced scorecard . The balanced scorecard supplemented traditional financial measures with criteria that measured performance from three additional perspectives—those of customers, internal business processes, and Roommate, learning and growth. (See the exhibit “Translating Vision and Strategy: Four Perspectives.”) It therefore enabled companies to track financial results while simultaneously monitoring progress in building the capabilities and acquiring the Assistant | Download, intangible assets they would need for future growth. The scorecard wasn’t a replacement for financial measures; it was their complement. Recently, we have seen some companies move beyond our early vision for the scorecard to discover its value as the cornerstone of a new strategic management system. Used this way, the scorecard addresses a serious deficiency in traditional management systems: their inability to link a company’s long-term strategy with its short-term actions. Most companies’ operational and management control systems are built around financial measures and targets, which bear little relation to Roommate Template - Excel, the company’s progress in achieving long-term strategic objectives.
Thus the Example | Cashier, emphasis most companies place on short-term financial measures leaves a gap between the development of a strategy and its implementation. Managers using the balanced scorecard do not have to Rent - Excel About, rely on short-term financial measures as the sole indicators of the company’s performance. The scorecard lets them introduce four new management processes that, separately and in combination, contribute to linking long-term strategic objectives with short-term actions. (See the Letter Sample Resume, exhibit “Managing Strategy: Four Processes.”) The first new process— translating the vision —helps managers build a consensus around the organization’s vision and strategy. Despite the best intentions of those at the top, lofty statements about becoming “best in Roommate - Excel class,” “the number one supplier,” or an “empowered organization” don’t translate easily into operational terms that provide useful guides to action at the local level. For people to act on the words in vision and 7+ Education Section Of Resume, strategy statements, those statements must be expressed as an integrated set of objectives and measures, agreed upon by all senior executives, that describe the long-term drivers of success. The second process— communicating and linking —lets managers communicate their strategy up and down the About, organization and link it to departmental and individual objectives. Traditionally, departments are evaluated by Letter | Forklift, their financial performance, and Agreement Archives, individual incentives are tied to short-term financial goals. The scorecard gives managers a way of ensuring that all levels of the organization understand the long-term strategy and that both departmental and individual objectives are aligned with it.
The third process— business planning —enables companies to integrate their business and financial plans. Almost all organizations today are implementing a variety of change programs, each with its own champions, gurus, and consultants, and - 34+ Free In Word, Pdf, each competing for senior executives’ time, energy, and resources. Managers find it difficult to integrate those diverse initiatives to achieve their strategic goals—a situation that leads to frequent disappointments with the programs’ results. But when managers use the ambitious goals set for balanced scorecard measures as the basis for allocating resources and setting priorities, they can undertake and coordinate only those initiatives that move them toward their long-term strategic objectives. The fourth process— feedback and learning —gives companies the capacity for what we call strategic learning. Existing feedback and review processes focus on whether the company, its departments, or its individual employees have met their budgeted financial goals. With the balanced scorecard at the center of its management systems, a company can monitor short-term results from the three additional perspectives—customers, internal business processes, and learning and growth—and evaluate strategy in the light of recent performance. The scorecard thus enables companies to modify strategies to reflect real-time learning.
None of the more than 100 organizations that we have studied or with which we have worked implemented their first balanced scorecard with the intention of developing a new strategic management system. But in each one, the senior executives discovered that the Archives, scorecard supplied a framework and thus a focus for many critical management processes: departmental and individual goal setting, business planning, capital allocations, strategic initiatives, and feedback and learning. Previously, those processes were uncoordinated and often directed at short-term operational goals. 5+ Salary Request! By building the scorecard, the senior executives started a process of change that has gone well beyond the original idea of simply broadening the company’s performance measures. For example, one insurance company—let’s call it National Insurance—developed its first balanced scorecard to Roommate Rent Template - Excel About, create a new vision for itself as an underwriting specialist.
But once National started to use it, the Name | Name Badges | Staples®, scorecard allowed the CEO and the senior management team not only to introduce a new strategy for Roommate - Excel About the organization but also to overhaul the company’s management system. The CEO subsequently told employees in a letter addressed to the whole organization that National would thenceforth use the balanced scorecard and the philosophy that it represented to manage the business. National built its new strategic management system step-by-step over 30 months, with each step representing an incremental improvement. (See the Name Tags | Name | Staples®, exhibit “How One Company Built a Strategic Management System…”) The iterative sequence of actions enabled the Roommate Rent Agreement About, company to reconsider each of the four new management processes two or three times before the system stabilized and became an established part of National’s overall management system. Thus the CEO was able to 5+ Salary Request Letter Resume, transform the About, company so that everyone could focus on achieving long-term strategic objectives—something that no purely financial framework could do. The CEO of an engineering construction company, after working with his senior management team for several months to develop a mission statement, got a phone call from a project manager in the field. “I want you to know,” the Executive Administrative Resume | Download, distraught manager said, “that I believe in the mission statement.
I want to Roommate Rent About, act in accordance with the mission statement. I’m here with my customer. What am I supposed to do?” The mission statement, like those of many other organizations, had declared an intention to “use high-quality employees to provide services that surpass customers’ needs.” But the project manager in the field with his employees and Section Example | Cashier Resumes, his customer did not know how to translate those words into Roommate Template Archives the appropriate actions. The phone call convinced the Section Of Resume Example | Cashier Resumes, CEO that a large gap existed between the mission statement and employees’ knowledge of how their day-to-day actions could contribute to Roommate About, realizing the company’s vision. The Balanced Scorecard: Measures That Drive Performance. Metro Bank (not its real name), the result of a merger of two competitors, encountered a similar gap while building its balanced scorecard.
The senior executive group thought it had reached agreement on the new organization’s overall strategy: “to provide superior service to targeted customers.” Research had revealed five basic market segments among existing and potential customers, each with different needs. While formulating the measures for the customer-perspective portion of their balanced scorecard, however, it became apparent that although the 25 senior executives agreed on the words of the strategy, each one had a different definition of superior service and a different image of the targeted customers . The exercise of Executive Administrative | Download Free, developing operational measures for the four perspectives on the bank’s scorecard forced the 25 executives to Agreement Template, clarify the 5+ Salary Sample, meaning of the strategy statement. Ultimately, they agreed to stimulate revenue growth through new products and services and also agreed on the three most desirable customer segments. They developed scorecard measures for the specific products and services that should be delivered to customers in the targeted segments as well as for Roommate Rent Archives - Excel the relationship the bank should build with customers in each segment. Free Wedding Coordinator's Checklist Printable | Rebecca! The scorecard also highlighted gaps in employees’ skills and in Rent Agreement - Excel information systems that the bank would have to close in order to deliver the selected value propositions to the targeted customers. Thus, creating a balanced scorecard forced the bank’s senior managers to arrive at a consensus and then to translate their vision into Free Wedding Coordinator's | Rebecca terms that had meaning to the people who would realize the vision. “The top ten people in the business now understand the strategy better than ever before. It’s too bad,” a senior executive of a major oil company complained, “that we can’t put this in a bottle so that everyone could share it.” With the balanced scorecard, he can.
One company we have worked with deliberately involved three layers of management in the creation of its balanced scorecard. The senior executive group formulated the Rent Archives About, financial and customer objectives. It then mobilized the talent and information in the next two levels of managers by having them formulate the internal-business-process and learning-and-growth objectives that would drive the achievement of the financial and customer goals. For example, knowing the importance of satisfying customers’ expectations of on-time delivery, the Resumes, broader group identified several internal business processes—such as order processing, scheduling, and fulfillment—in which the company had to excel. To do so, the company would have to retrain frontline employees and Roommate Rent Agreement, improve the information systems available to them. The group developed performance measures for those critical processes and for staff and systems capabilities. Broad participation in creating a scorecard takes longer, but it offers several advantages: Information from Assistant Free a larger number of managers is incorporated into the internal objectives; the Rent Template Archives - Excel, managers gain a better understanding of the Name Tags & Id, company’s long-term strategic goals; and such broad participation builds a stronger commitment to achieving those goals. But getting managers to buy into the scorecard is only a first step in Roommate Agreement Archives - Excel About linking individual actions to corporate goals. The balanced scorecard signals to everyone what the organization is trying to achieve for shareholders and customers alike. But to align employees’ individual performances with the overall strategy, scorecard users generally engage in Executive Administrative Resume Free three activities: communicating and educating, setting goals, and Rent Agreement Template - Excel About, linking rewards to performance measures.
Implementing a strategy begins with educating those who have to Income Spreadsheet Template | Haisume, execute it. Whereas some organizations opt to hold their strategy close to the vest, most believe that they should disseminate it from top to bottom. A broad-based communication program shares with all employees the Roommate Rent Agreement Archives - Excel About, strategy and the critical objectives they have to 7+ Education, meet if the strategy is to succeed. Onetime events such as the distribution of brochures or newsletters and the holding of “town meetings” might kick off the program. Some organizations post bulletin boards that illustrate and explain the balanced scorecard measures, then update them with monthly results. Others use groupware and electronic bulletin boards to distribute the scorecard to the desktops of all employees and to encourage dialogue about the measures. The same media allow employees to make suggestions for Rent Agreement Archives - Excel About achieving or exceeding the targets.
The balanced scorecard, as the embodiment of business unit strategy, should also be communicated upward in Sample In Word, Pdf the organization—to corporate headquarters and to Roommate Agreement Template - Excel About, the corporate board of directors. With the scorecard, business units can quantify and communicate their long-term strategies to Name | Staples®, senior executives using a comprehensive set of Agreement Archives About, linked financial and nonfinancial measures. Such communication informs the executives and the board in specific terms that long-term strategies designed for competitive success are in place. The measures also provide the basis for Small Expense Spreadsheet | Haisume feedback and accountability. Meeting short-term financial targets should not constitute satisfactory performance when other measures indicate that the Agreement - Excel About, long-term strategy is either not working or not being implemented well. Should the balanced scorecard be communicated beyond the boardroom to 5+ Salary Advance Request Letter | Forklift Resume, external shareholders? We believe that as senior executives gain confidence in Agreement Archives - Excel About the ability of the scorecard measures to monitor strategic performance and predict future financial performance, they will find ways to inform outside investors about Of Resume | Cashier, those measures without disclosing competitively sensitive information.
Skandia, an insurance and financial services company based in Rent Agreement Template - Excel Sweden, issues a supplement to its annual report called “The Business Navigator”—“an instrument to help us navigate into Tags | Name Badges Badges the future and thereby stimulate renewal and development.” The supplement describes Skandia’s strategy and the strategic measures the company uses to communicate and evaluate the strategy. It also provides a report on the company’s performance along those measures during the year. The measures are customized for each operating unit and include, for example, market share, customer satisfaction and retention, employee competence, employee empowerment, and technology deployment. Communicating the balanced scorecard promotes commitment and accountability to Roommate Rent - Excel About, the business’s long-term strategy. As one executive at Metro Bank declared, “The balanced scorecard is both motivating and obligating.” Mere awareness of corporate goals, however, is not enough to change many people’s behavior. Somehow, the Free Wedding | Rebecca Autry, organization’s high-level strategic objectives and measures must be translated into objectives and measures for operating units and individuals. The exploration group of a large oil company developed a technique to enable and encourage individuals to set goals for themselves that were consistent with the organization’s.
It created a small, fold-up, personal scorecard that people could carry in their shirt pockets or wallets. (See the exhibit “The Personal Scorecard.”) The scorecard contains three levels of information. Agreement Archives - Excel About! The first describes corporate objectives, measures, and targets. The second leaves room for translating corporate targets into Of Resume | Cashier targets for each business unit. For the third level, the company asks both individuals and teams to articulate which of their own objectives would be consistent with the Rent Archives, business unit and corporate objectives, as well as what initiatives they would take to Wedding Coordinator's Printable | Rebecca, achieve their objectives. It also asks them to define up to five performance measures for their objectives and to set targets for each measure. The personal scorecard helps to communicate corporate and business unit objectives to the people and teams performing the work, enabling them to translate the Rent Agreement Archives, objectives into Free In Word, meaningful tasks and targets for themselves. It also lets them keep that information close at hand—in their pockets. Linking rewards to performance measures. Should compensation systems be linked to balanced scorecard measures?
Some companies, believing that tying financial compensation to performance is a powerful lever, have moved quickly to establish such a linkage. For example, an oil company that we’ll call Pioneer Petroleum uses its scorecard as the sole basis for computing incentive compensation. The company ties 60% of its executives’ bonuses to Agreement - Excel About, their achievement of ambitious targets for a weighted average of Administrative Assistant | Download Free, four financial indicators: return on capital, profitability, cash flow, and operating cost. It bases the remaining 40% on indicators of customer satisfaction, dealer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, and environmental responsibility (such as a percentage change in the level of Agreement Archives About, emissions to water and air). Pioneer’s CEO says that linking compensation to the scorecard has helped to align the company with its strategy. “I know of no competitor,” he says, “who has this degree of 5+ Salary Advance Request Letter | Forklift, alignment.
It is producing results for us.” As attractive and as powerful as such linkage is, it nonetheless carries risks. For instance, does the Rent Agreement - Excel, company have the right measures on the scorecard? Does it have valid and reliable data for the selected measures? Could unintended or unexpected consequences arise from the way the targets for 7+ Education Section Example Resumes the measures are achieved? Those are questions that companies should ask.
Furthermore, companies traditionally handle multiple objectives in a compensation formula by assigning weights to each objective and calculating incentive compensation by the extent to which each weighted objective was achieved. This practice permits substantial incentive compensation to be paid if the Roommate Rent Agreement, business unit overachieves on a few objectives even if it falls far short on Request Resume, others. A better approach would be to establish minimum threshold levels for a critical subset of the strategic measures. Individuals would earn no incentive compensation if performance in a given period fell short of any threshold. This requirement should motivate people to achieve a more balanced performance across short- and long-term objectives.
Some organizations, however, have reduced their emphasis on short-term, formula-based incentive systems as a result of introducing the balanced scorecard. Roommate Rent! They have discovered that dialogue among executives and managers about the scorecard—both the formulation of the measures and objectives and the explanation of actual versus targeted results—provides a better opportunity to observe managers’ performance and abilities. Increased knowledge of their managers’ abilities makes it easier for executives to set incentive rewards subjectively and to defend those subjective evaluations—a process that is less susceptible to the game playing and distortions associated with explicit, formula-based rules. One company we have studied takes an intermediate position. Executive Administrative Assistant | Download! It bases bonuses for Rent Archives - Excel About business unit managers on two equally weighted criteria: their achievement of a financial objective—economic value added—over a three-year period and a subjective assessment of their performance on measures drawn from the customer, internal-business-process, and learning-and-growth perspectives of the Wedding Coordinator's Printable | Rebecca, balanced scorecard.
That the balanced scorecard has a role to Roommate Rent Agreement Template Archives, play in the determination of incentive compensation is not in doubt. Precisely what that role should be will become clearer as more companies experiment with linking rewards to scorecard measures. “Where the rubber meets the sky”: That’s how one senior executive describes his company’s long-range-planning process. He might have said the same of many other companies because their financially based management systems fail to Name Tags | Name & Id, link change programs and resource allocation to long-term strategic priorities. The problem is that most organizations have separate procedures and organizational units for strategic planning and for resource allocation and budgeting. To formulate their strategic plans, senior executives go off-site annually and Roommate Archives - Excel About, engage for several days in active discussions facilitated by senior planning and development managers or external consultants. The outcome of this exercise is a strategic plan articulating where the Wedding Printable | Rebecca Autry, company expects (or hopes or prays) to be in three, five, and ten years. Typically, such plans then sit on Roommate Rent Agreement Template About, executives’ bookshelves for the next 12 months. Meanwhile, a separate resource-allocation and budgeting process run by the finance staff sets financial targets for revenues, expenses, profits, and investments for the next fiscal year.
The budget it produces consists almost entirely of financial numbers that generally bear little relation to the targets in the strategic plan. Which document do corporate managers discuss in Employment Forms In Word, Pdf their monthly and quarterly meetings during the following year? Usually only the Roommate Rent Agreement Archives - Excel, budget, because the periodic reviews focus on a comparison of actual and budgeted results for every line item. Badges | Staples®! When is the Archives, strategic plan next discussed? Probably during the next annual off-site meeting, when the Free Wedding | Rebecca Autry, senior managers draw up a new set of three-, five-, and Rent Agreement Template - Excel About, ten-year plans. The very exercise of creating a balanced scorecard forces companies to integrate their strategic planning and budgeting processes and therefore helps to ensure that their budgets support their strategies. Scorecard users select measures of progress from all four scorecard perspectives and set targets for each of them.
Then they determine which actions will drive them toward their targets, identify the measures they will apply to those drivers from the four perspectives, and establish the short-term milestones that will mark their progress along the Administrative Resume Free, strategic paths they have selected. Building a scorecard thus enables a company to link its financial budgets with its strategic goals. For example, one division of the Style Company (not its real name) committed to achieving a seemingly impossible goal articulated by the CEO: to double revenues in five years. The forecasts built into the organization’s existing strategic plan fell $1 billion short of this objective. The division’s managers, after considering various scenarios, agreed to specific increases in five different performance drivers: the Roommate Template Archives, number of new stores opened, the number of new customers attracted into new and In Pdf Free Documents In Word,, existing stores, the percentage of Roommate Rent Archives - Excel About, shoppers in each store converted into Assistant Resume | Download actual purchasers, the portion of existing customers retained, and average sales per customer. By helping to define the key drivers of revenue growth and by committing to Agreement Template Archives About, targets for each of them, the division’s managers eventually grew comfortable with the CEO’s ambitious goal. The process of building a balanced scorecard—clarifying the strategic objectives and then identifying the few critical drivers—also creates a framework for managing an organization’s various change programs. These initiatives—reengineering, employee empowerment, time-based management, and total quality management, among others—promise to deliver results but also compete with one another for Administrative | Download Free scarce resources, including the scarcest resource of all: senior managers’ time and attention.
Shortly after the Roommate Agreement Template, merger that created it, Metro Bank, for example, launched more than 70 different initiatives. The initiatives were intended to produce a more competitive and successful institution, but they were inadequately integrated into the overall strategy. After building their balanced scorecard, Metro Bank’s managers dropped many of those programs—such as a marketing effort directed at individuals with very high net worth—and consolidated others into initiatives that were better aligned with the Free | Rebecca, company’s strategic objectives. For example, the Roommate Agreement Archives, managers replaced a program aimed at enhancing existing low-level selling skills with a major initiative aimed at retraining salespersons to Executive | Download Free, become trusted financial advisers, capable of selling a broad range of Roommate Agreement Archives About, newly introduced products to the three selected customer segments. The bank made both changes because the scorecard enabled it to gain a better understanding of the programs required to achieve its strategic objectives. Once the strategy is Of Resume Example | Cashier Resumes, defined and the drivers are identified, the scorecard influences managers to concentrate on improving or reengineering those processes most critical to the organization’s strategic success. That is how the Rent Archives About, scorecard most clearly links and aligns action with strategy.
The final step in linking strategy to actions is to Small Spreadsheet Template | Haisume, establish specific short-term targets, or milestones, for the balanced scorecard measures. Milestones are tangible expressions of managers’ beliefs about Roommate Archives - Excel, when and to what degree their current programs will affect those measures. Putting the Balanced Scorecard to Work. In establishing milestones, managers are expanding the traditional budgeting process to Assistant Resume | Download, incorporate strategic as well as financial goals. Detailed financial planning remains important, but financial goals taken by themselves ignore the Roommate Rent Template Archives, three other balanced scorecard perspectives. In an integrated planning and budgeting process, executives continue to budget for short-term financial performance, but they also introduce short-term targets for measures in the customer, internal-business-process, and Employment In Pdf - 34+ Documents Pdf, learning-and-growth perspectives. With those milestones established, managers can continually test both the Template Archives, theory underlying the strategy and the strategy’s implementation. At the end of the 7+ Education Section Of Resume | Cashier Resumes, business-planning process, managers should have set targets for the long-term objectives they would like to achieve in all four scorecard perspectives; they should have identified the strategic initiatives required and allocated the necessary resources to those initiatives; and they should have established milestones for the measures that mark progress toward achieving their strategic goals. “With the balanced scorecard,” a CEO of an engineering company told us, “I can continually test my strategy.
It’s like performing real-time research.” That is exactly the capability that the scorecard should give senior managers: the Rent Agreement Archives - Excel About, ability to know at any point in Sample Forms Documents Pdf its implementation whether the strategy they have formulated is, in Roommate Rent fact, working, and if not, why. The first three management processes—translating the vision, communicating and linking, and Advance Request Sample | Forklift Resume, business planning—are vital for implementing strategy, but they are not sufficient in an unpredictable world. Together they form an important single-loop-learning process—single-loop in the sense that the objective remains constant, and any departure from the planned trajectory is seen as a defect to be remedied. This single-loop process does not require or even facilitate reexamination of either the strategy or the techniques used to Roommate Agreement Template - Excel About, implement it in light of current conditions. Most companies today operate in a turbulent environment with complex strategies that, though valid when they were launched, may lose their validity as business conditions change. In this kind of environment, where new threats and opportunities arise constantly, companies must become capable of what Chris Argyris calls double-loop learning —learning that produces a change in people’s assumptions and theories about cause-and-effect relationships. Administrative | Download! (See “Teaching Smart People How to Learn,” HBR May–June 1991.) Budget reviews and other financially based management tools cannot engage senior executives in double-loop learning—first, because these tools address performance from only one perspective, and second, because they don’t involve strategic learning. Strategic learning consists of gathering feedback, testing the hypotheses on which strategy was based, and making the Rent - Excel About, necessary adjustments. The balanced scorecard supplies three elements that are essential to strategic learning.
First, it articulates the company’s shared vision, defining in clear and operational terms the results that the Request Sample Resume, company, as a team, is trying to achieve. The scorecard communicates a holistic model that links individual efforts and Agreement Template Archives - Excel About, accomplishments to business unit objectives. Second, the scorecard supplies the essential strategic feedback system. A business strategy can be viewed as a set of hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships. A strategic feedback system should be able to test, validate, and modify the hypotheses embedded in a business unit’s strategy. By establishing short-term goals, or milestones, within the Badges & Id Badges, business-planning process, executives are forecasting the Roommate Template - Excel, relationship between changes in Name Tags | Name Badges performance drivers and the associated changes in one or more specified goals. For example, executives at Metro Bank estimated the amount of Roommate Agreement Template - Excel, time it would take for improvements in training and in the availability of information systems before employees could sell multiple financial products effectively to Wedding Coordinator's Autry, existing and new customers.
They also estimated how great the effect of Template Archives - Excel About, that selling capability would be. Another organization attempted to validate its hypothesized cause-and-effect relationships in the balanced scorecard by measuring the strength of the linkages among measures in the different perspectives. (See the exhibit “How One Company Linked Measures from the Four Perspectives.”) The company found significant correlations between employees’ morale, a measure in the learning-and-growth perspective, and Tags Badges Badges, customer satisfaction, an important customer perspective measure. Customer satisfaction, in turn, was correlated with faster payment of invoices—a relationship that led to a substantial reduction in accounts receivable and hence a higher return on capital employed. The company also found correlations between employees’ morale and the number of suggestions made by employees (two learning-and-growth measures) as well as between an increased number of suggestions and Agreement, lower rework (an internal-business-process measure). Evidence of 5+ Salary Letter Sample Resume, such strong correlations help to confirm the organization’s business strategy.
If, however, the expected correlations are not found over time, it should be an indication to executives that the theory underlying the Roommate Rent Agreement Template, unit’s strategy may not be working as they had anticipated. Especially in large organizations, accumulating sufficient data to document significant correlations and causation among balanced scorecard measures can take a long time—months or years. Name Tags & Id Badges | Staples®! Over the short term, managers’ assessment of strategic impact may have to Roommate Rent Template Archives, rest on subjective and 7+ Education Section Example Resumes, qualitative judgments. Eventually, however, as more evidence accumulates, organizations may be able to provide more objectively grounded estimates of cause-and-effect relationships. Rent Agreement Archives About! But just getting managers to think systematically about the Business Income Spreadsheet, assumptions underlying their strategy is an improvement over the current practice of making decisions based on short-term operational results. Third, the scorecard facilitates the strategy review that is essential to strategic learning. Traditionally, companies use the monthly or quarterly meetings between corporate and division executives to analyze the most recent period’s financial results. Rent Template Archives - Excel About! Discussions focus on Coordinator's Autry, past performance and on explanations of why financial objectives were not achieved. The balanced scorecard, with its specification of the causal relationships between performance drivers and objectives, allows corporate and Roommate Rent - Excel, business unit executives to use their periodic review sessions to evaluate the Sample Employment Free Pdf, validity of the Rent Agreement Template Archives, unit’s strategy and the quality of Sample Employment Free Pdf, its execution. If the unit’s employees and managers have delivered on the performance drivers (retraining of employees, availability of information systems, and new financial products and services, for instance), then their failure to achieve the expected outcomes (higher sales to Template, targeted customers, for Executive Administrative Resume example) signals that the Roommate Rent Agreement Template Archives About, theory underlying the strategy may not be valid.
The disappointing sales figures are an Sample Free Documents early warning. Managers should take such disconfirming evidence seriously and reconsider their shared conclusions about market conditions, customer value propositions, competitors’ behavior, and internal capabilities. The result of such a review may be a decision to reaffirm their belief in the current strategy but to adjust the Agreement Archives About, quantitative relationship among the strategic measures on the balanced scorecard. But they also might conclude that the unit needs a different strategy (an example of double-loop learning) in light of Name | Name Badges & Id Badges | Staples®, new knowledge about market conditions and internal capabilities. Template - Excel! In any case, the scorecard will have stimulated key executives to learn about the viability of Free Wedding Coordinator's Checklist, their strategy. This capacity for Roommate Agreement Archives - Excel enabling organizational learning at the executive level—strategic learning—is what distinguishes the balanced scorecard, making it invaluable for Printable those who wish to create a strategic management system. Toward a New Strategic Management System. Many companies adopted early balanced scorecard concepts to improve their performance measurement systems. They achieved tangible but narrow results. Template Archives - Excel! Adopting those concepts provided clarification, consensus, and Sample In Pdf In Word,, focus on the desired improvements in performance. Roommate Rent Agreement Template Archives About! More recently, we have seen companies expand their use of the balanced scorecard, employing it as the 7+ Education Example | Cashier Resumes, foundation of an integrated and Agreement, iterative strategic management system.
Companies are using the Employment Forms In Pdf - 34+ In Word,, scorecard to. clarify and update strategy; communicate strategy throughout the company; align unit and individual goals with the strategy; link strategic objectives to long-term targets and annual budgets; identify and align strategic initiatives; and conduct periodic performance reviews to learn about and improve strategy. The balanced scorecard enables a company to align its management processes and Agreement Template Archives About, focuses the entire organization on Sample Employment In Pdf - 34+ Free In Word,, implementing long-term strategy. Roommate Agreement Archives - Excel About! At National Insurance, the scorecard provided the CEO and his managers with a central framework around which they could redesign each piece of the company’s management system. And because of the cause-and-effect linkages inherent in the scorecard framework, changes in 5+ Salary Advance Request Letter one component of the system reinforced earlier changes made elsewhere. Therefore, every change made over the 30-month period added to the momentum that kept the Roommate Agreement Template - Excel, organization moving forward in the agreed-upon direction. Without a balanced scorecard, most organizations are unable to achieve a similar consistency of vision and action as they attempt to change direction and introduce new strategies and Small Business Income Expense Template | Haisume, processes. The balanced scorecard provides a framework for Template Archives About managing the Section Of Resume, implementation of strategy while also allowing the strategy itself to evolve in response to Agreement About, changes in the company’s competitive, market, and technological environments. Robert S. Kaplan is Section Example | Cashier, a senior fellow and the Marvin Bower Professor of Leadership Development, Emeritus, at Harvard Business School.
He is a coauthor, with Michael E. Porter, of “How to Solve the Agreement - Excel, Cost Crisis in Sample Employment In Pdf - 34+ Health Care” (HBR, September 2011). David P. Norton is a founder and director of the Palladium Group and is co-author of The Balanced Scorecard .
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5 Persuasive Writing Essay Prompts About Health Care Reform. Healthcare is Roommate, a hot button issue in politics today. Since Obama's first term as President, the country has been debating how best to provide medical coverage for 5+ Salary Advance Sample Resume the population of the United States and how best to keep the costs of this coverage down. If you want to teach your kids how to write - especially how to write persuasively - then you need engaging, interesting topics for Roommate them to write about. Forms - 34+ Documents. Healthcare reform is such a hot, current topic that kids are going to have opinions about it. It's a great basis for a persuasive essay writing task.
If you read these tips on persuasive writing prompts, you'll know that it's important for students to have some facts on Agreement Archives About, which to 5+ Salary Advance Request Sample, base their arguments. When it comes to Rent Agreement Archives - Excel, civics education, divisive political issues, like healthcare reform, can spur arguments based more on passion and opinion than facts, so it helps to assign some reading before your students write. It also helps to do some character education beforehand, to make sure students have the attitudes necessary to deal with these topics in a mature fashion. Time Magazine published an excellent article in 5+ Salary Advance Request | Forklift Resume February by Steven Brill - Bitter Pill: Why Medical Bills Are Killing Us. In the article, Brill does some good old fashioned journalism to attack one of the root problems in healthcare - why are the bills so high? The article is a bit long, and Rent Template Archives About you may not want to assign the entire thing to your students. It would, however, be an Assistant Resume Free excellent idea to excerpt a couple of pages to accompany each of the prompts that you give to your students. Five Topics for Students to Write Persuasive Essays About. Each of the topics and Roommate Rent Agreement About tasks below were inspired by the Steven Brill article above. Sample Employment Forms In Pdf - 34+ Free. I highly suggest that you , the teacher, read the article so that you've got a firm grasp on the issues and some of the facts. Roommate Agreement Archives. Then, you can decide what (if anything) you want your students to read to inform their own opinions.
Should there be limits on the prices drugmakers and hospitals charge for certain drugs? New, sophisticated drugs are necessary to treat diseases like cancer. These drugs often cost several thousand dollars per treatment straight from the manufacturer, and hospitals will often mark the Sample In Pdf In Word, price of these drugs up even further when they bill patients. The patient usually has little to no choice in the matter, and there's no competition to help drive down prices as would happen in Roommate Rent Template About a normal market. Drug makers, on the other hand, argue that high prices are necessary to fund research and development. Brill has some interesting numbers to Letter Sample Resume, challenge that assertion, and you'll want to read his findings before you make up your mind. However, there's a fundamental question about free market economics, liberty, and fairness involved in this question. Should there be limits on the salaries of hospital administrators? One of Brill's findings is that hospital CEOs and other administrators are paid outsized salaries - often in the high six figures or even seven figures.
In the case of hospitals attached to research universities, the hospital administrator is often paid more than the university president. This is similar in some ways to the salary arms race going on in college sports, where head football coaches are paid exorbitant salaries. In the scheme of things, reducing administrative salaries probably won't bring costs down much. But it just seems like a good idea. It's also interesting to note that many of Template About, these hospitals are not-for-profit organizations.
Should hospital fees be tied directly to the cost of providing a particular service? A constant theme of Brill's article is the chargemaster list. It's a list of prices for particular services and items administered at Sample Forms In Pdf - 34+ In Word, Pdf, a hospital, and it's the Roommate Archives - Excel About basis for all prices charged to individuals and to insurance companies. Name | Name Badges Badges | Staples®. These lists have no logical connection to the actual cost of Roommate Rent Template, services, and they often produce extremely high mark-ups (1000% to 5+ Salary Advance Sample, 2000%) over the actual cost. There's an alternative method, which Medicare uses. When the government reimburses hospitals for Agreement About treating medicare patients, it draws on a calculated list of what it actually costs to Small Business Expense Template, provide a service.
These prices are drastically lower than the ones on the chargemaster. An interesting reform might be to tie the prices of all fees to Rent Agreement Archives, this Medicare reimbursement list, and then allow a certain mark-up for the hospitals to make a profit. Tags & Id. Should uninsured individuals pay more for the same services? A peculiar problem of the Roommate Rent Template Archives About American healthcare system is that uninsured (or underinsured) people face steep charges if they go to the hospital. These fees are based on the previously mentioned, outrageously over-priced chargemaster. Insurance companies negotiate lower prices, and the government insists on a particular schedule of fees when it pays for Medicare and Medicaid patients. Yet individuals who have no insurance are at the mercy of the hospital, and they must pay whatever the hospital charges them. To make matters worse, people often don't know how much they're going to Employment Forms Pdf, be charged until after they've been treated. This begs the question of whether it's fair for some people to pay far more for healthcare than those who are covered by insurance. Should there be limits on malpractice lawsuits (i.e. tort reform)? On the conservative side, one argument about healthcare is that prices are so high because hospitals and doctors have to be concerned with malpractice lawsuits.
One wrong step and they're on the line for millions of dollars of Agreement Template About, liability. Request Letter | Forklift Resume. If they don't exhaust every option, then they might even be on Roommate Rent Agreement Template Archives About, the hook for Business Income Expense Template that. Brill suggests that this leads to massive over-testing, and Roommate Rent Archives - Excel About doctors are ordering all kinds of tests (like CT Scans) that aren't really necessary. By tightening the rules for proving malpractice - i.e. requiring true negligence on the part of the doctor - you free hospitals from the | Name Badges & Id Badges | Staples® need to run excessive tests to simply cover their butts. This could help bring down spending significantly, although the Roommate Rent Template - Excel counter argument is that this could lead to inferior care. 10 Persuasive Writing Tasks and 7+ Education Of Resume Example | Cashier Resumes Prompts About Politics and Roommate Rent Agreement Template - Excel About Government. by 7+ Education Section Resumes Brian Rock 1. 10 Persuasive Writing Prompts for 3rd Graders. by Brian Rock 3. by Virginia Kearney 1. Four Different Types of Writing Styles: Expository, Descriptive, Persuasive, and Roommate Agreement Archives - Excel Narrative. by Syed Hunbbel Meer 195.
How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. 7+ Education Section | Cashier Resumes. How to Agreement Template Archives - Excel About, Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Advance Request | Forklift Virginia Kearney 42. Pls can you show me your persuasive writing about health system. i want learn best way of english writing. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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Conventions of Writing Papers in Humanities. Organization. Roommate Rent Agreement Archives - Excel About! All college essays need an introduction, a body, and 7+ Education Of Resume Example a conclusion. In your Humanities paper, the essay's introduction invites your reader into Roommate Agreement Archives - Excel your analysis and provides a thesis that describes the direction of your argument. The essay's body is composed of a series of close, interpretive readings of passages from the Humanities text that support the Administrative Resume | Download Free, assertion of your thesis. The essay's conclusion thoughtfully reflects on Roommate Agreement Template Archives - Excel About, what you have presented in the paper. It does not simply repeat your thesis. Introductory pitfalls.
The following are errors that inexperienced writers make when writing introductory paragraphs. Praising the bard. Frightened at Small Business Expense Spreadsheet Template | Haisume, the blank five or ten pages they have yet to fill, some students rely on a warm-up sentence that goes something like this: The great Renaissance poet and playwright, William Shakespeare, masterfully wrote his famous play, Hamlet , just as the sixteenth century drew to a close. Rarely do opening lines like this have anything to do with the thesis of the paper, and - Excel About they should be edited out in 5+ Salary Letter Resume the final draft. Roommate Rent Template - Excel About! Your professor and your fellow students are doubtless aware of Shakespeare's (or Locke's or Woolf's) well-received reputation and 7+ Education Of Resume Example have no need for information extraneous to your topic. Only include such phrases if they startlingly contrast commonly received ideas. Template - Excel About! E.g., Many have praised Shakespeare as the Advance Request | Forklift Resume, greatest of poets writing in English, but he is far surpassed by the exquisite wit and expression of the Roommate Rent Template Archives - Excel, stand-up comedian Andrew Dice Clay. Be prepared, of course, to defend your extraordinary claims.
Lab talk. The noun essay is Free Autry, derived from Rent Template Archives a French verb that means to try or to attempt. When you write an essay, you are yourself using a literary form. An essay is an extended work of prose composed to explore or examine an 7+ Education Section Of Resume Resumes, idea. It is not a scientific proof, and the rhetoric of the laboratory has no place in Roommate Rent Template Archives your Humanities essay. 7+ Education | Cashier! In poorly written essays, such lab talk shows up in a sentence like this: In this paper I will prove that Gulliver maintains his ironic role through the Rent Template Archives - Excel About, end of the Small Business Expense | Haisume, fourth book of Swift's Gulliver's Travels You may, indeed, follow a scientific route in crafting an inductive argument, one that gathers examples and draws conclusions by examining them together. Roommate Template! But inductive arguments, as any scientist will tell you, are never exhaustive.
Claims of proof about an Advance Request Letter Sample | Forklift, object of interpretation will not lend your paper any authority. You gain authority through the originality, thoroughness, and Roommate Rent - Excel About intelligence of Free Wedding Coordinator's Checklist your analysis. Therapy thesis. Most people have had the experience of being personally moved by Roommate Agreement About a literary work. Harry Mulisch's novel, The Assault , or James Baldwin's novel, Go Tell it on the Mountain , might parallel a self-discovery experience you have had. Income Template! Reading a poem like Dylan Thomas' Do Not Go Gentle into Roommate Rent Agreement Archives - Excel About that Good Night might force you to face your love and Example | Cashier Resumes grief for a parent or relative who has died. The cathartic power of art has been appreciated since the days of the early Greeks, and an emotional response to Agreement Template Archives a work of literature is a legitimate response. Free Wedding Coordinator's Printable | Rebecca Autry! When Odysseus bows his head to hide the tears he sheds in listening to Roommate Rent Agreement - Excel About the singing of the poet in the court of the Phaiakians, however, he is not writing a Humanities essay.
The fact that a poem or a play touched a raw nerve is great. But not every response we have to a text is an | Download Free, appropriate response for a college essay. You need not deny your feelings in your essay; you simply need to Template Archives - Excel About take care that they do not assume the place of Template analysis. Make sure you discuss the primary source, rather than simply focusing on what it reminds you of in your life. Good Starts. It is as impossible to prescribe a formula for the opening line of a Humanities essay as it is to tell a philosopher, historian, or novelist what the first line of Template - Excel her work should be. If you believe that your purpose is simply to satisfy an assignment that scarcely interests you, feel free to start your essay with a sentence that will allow your reader to Section Example share your boredom.
But if your object is to Template Archives - Excel About attract the interest of Small Income Spreadsheet Template your reader, craft a sentence about your topic that introduces it in a dignified, yet unexpected, manner. An essay's topic is the narrowed down idea you have decided to discuss as it relates to the text you are considering. Agreement Template Archives! E.g., you might choose to write about scatological references in Gulliver's Travels . Somewhere within your first paragraph you want to include a sentence or two that describes your thesis. A thesis is your assertion about Small Template, your topic, a statement that indicates to your reader what the Agreement Template Archives - Excel, direction of the argument in your essay will be. Just as you want to avoid hubristic claims of proof in your thesis, you should also avoid shy qualifications. There is no need to Executive muffle your thoughts with phrases like, I believe that or In my opinion.
Your reader assumes that everything you write that you do not attribute to another author is your opinion. In the body. Whether your essay is three pages or twenty, you want to use your space to make a case for your thesis. While you may be required to bring in extra-textual information that has a bearing on your argument, your essay will be most successful if you pay very close attention to the primary work. Writing analysis . Roommate Template Archives! To analyze means to pull something apart to carefully examine the Badges | Staples®, pieces. When you analyze a treatise, a satire, a novel, or a document, you select lines or passages to INTERPRET and Template About make a claim about the Resume, whole work.
Sometimes you analyze the author's mode of Roommate Rent Agreement Archives - Excel expression: Why is this choppy? clear? tongue-in-cheek? replete with biblical references? Sometimes you interpret the objects the author has written about: Is size important? Does Locke know anything about native Americans? Is an Resume | Download Free, exploding stove symbolic of psychological repression? Is a cigar just a cigar? Sometimes you explain the patterns of imagery and metaphors the author has created: Why is Gulliver obsessed with his excrement? Why does Fake Ploeg start a sanitation company? What does it mean to go to the lighthouse? All of your analytical passages combine to support your essay's thesis. Creating your own organization . It is Roommate Rent Template - Excel, not necessary to imitate the Sample Employment Forms In Pdf - 34+ Documents In Word, Pdf, chronology of the Roommate Rent Agreement Archives, work you are analyzing. Since both you and your reader have completed a reading of the text you are discussing, you can draw upon Assistant Resume, examples from all sections of that text in whatever order best suits your argument.
Limiting Description. When writing about Roommate Template, a treatise, a satire, a novel, a document, etc., remember that your reader already knows the Administrative Assistant Resume Free, plot or substance of the text. Concentrate on how the Agreement Template About, author expresses what happens. You can refer to events and ideas without describing them as though they were completely new to In Pdf - 34+ Free Pdf your reader. Agreement Template Archives! E.g., rather than telling your reader, Jefferson argues for the American colonies to break away from the domination of Britain, you can say, Jefferson's argument that the American colonies break away from the domination of Britain combines inductive reasoning with an emotional rhetorical appeal. From there you would provide textual examples, and 5+ Salary Resume comment upon each one you select. Using Secondary Sources. Roommate Agreement Archives! Secondary sources include textbooks, encyclopedias, dictionaries, books on Employment In Pdf - 34+ Documents In Word, Pdf, a subject, journal articles, AND introductions and Roommate Rent Archives About notes included with a primary source. Cliffs Notes and other study guides are unacceptable secondary sources for a college-level Humanities paper. 7+ Education Of Resume! The works assigned for this course, except for the optional history text, are all considered primary sources for the purposes of the essays you write.
When you are required to incorporate secondary sources into your essay, you must make sure that you are not simply writing a report. Your essay is still governed by your thesis. Agreement Template Archives - Excel! Never let a secondary source dominate your essay. It offers supplementary information to your interpretation of the primary text. ALL information that you derive from a secondary source must be noted. Please use the parenthetical documentation style that appears below. Using quotations . Here is an oxymoron on Free Wedding Coordinator's | Rebecca, the use of quotations: sparse bounty.
It is hard to claim that you are interested in the way an author expresses himself if you fail to demonstrate that expression in your essay. On the other hand, you want to make sure that the passages you quote, whether in a primary or secondary source, need to be quoted. Quote only passages that would lose their effectiveness if they were paraphrased. Never use a quotation to substitute for your own prose. Your prose must control your essay. This is particularly important when you draw upon secondary critical sources. Unless you are going to analyze a long passage of criticism, you should paraphrase what the author has to Roommate Rent Agreement Template say. ALWAYS INCLUDE A TAG LINE ON ANY QUOTATION YOU INCLUDE IN THIS ESSAY. For example, a minimal tag line might be.
In The Second Treatise of Government , John Locke claims, . . . . Is this clear? Handbook writers call quotations without tag lines dropped quotations. A quotation should never appear in the prose of your essay without some of your words attached to it. Don't just borrow someone's else's words because they sound good (even if you provide a citation). Administrative Resume Free! Writing is hard work. Do it. Plagiarism . When you use secondary sources, and when you refer to Template Archives About the primary work, you must be sure to cite your source properly or you may be guilty of plagiarism. You will find formats for citing sources at the end of Tags | Name Badges | Staples® this document. Roommate Rent Agreement Template About! Whether you intend to cheat or not, if your paper does the following, you will--at the Small Business Income Expense Template | Haisume, very least--receive a failing grade for your essay (usually a zero).
The College defines plagiarism this way: (1) Direct quotation without appropriate punctuation and citation of Rent Agreement Archives - Excel source; (2) Paraphrase of expression or thought without proper attribution; (3) Dependence upon a source for a plan, organization or argument without appropriate citation. Other forms of cheating, such as representing someone else's work as your own, will be punished in consultation with the Dean of the College. There are also positive reasons to cite sources. Your reader will certainly want to know the context of your quotation or paraphrase. If a secondary work sounds interesting, your reader may want to know where to Administrative Free find it. Finally, it is important to distinguish another writer's ideas from your own so that you get credit for the original thinking you have done. Weak conclusions. The following are inappropriate ways to conclude a Humanities essay: Sudden stop. One way to avoid the task of reflecting upon what you have just written is to omit your conclusion and simply end your paper with your last example.
Both you and your reader will find this unsatisfying, however. A conclusion makes you responsible for what you have claimed. Think of Rent Agreement Template it as the Tags | Staples®, opportunity to assert something about your topic that you could not have asserted before you presented your examples. Most writers find that they have made discoveries about their topic in the process of writing their essays. This is why an Rent Agreement, essay takes at least two drafts. Instead of an abrupt stop, indicate the Free Wedding Checklist Printable | Rebecca Autry, kind of discovery your interpretative examples have made possible. Apology. Some writers do not like such responsibility. Insecure writers may end their papers with sentences such as these: I really do not know what to make of this.
I ran out of time and I could not draw this together. I was very upset while I was writing this and I hope you will take that into consideration while you are grading it. I'm sorry this isn't any better than it is. I didn't budget my time well. Don't apologize. Agreement Template! If your paper is indeed as dreadful as your apology suggests, your whining only underscores its inadequacies. If your paper is actually not all that bad, an apology could undermine the favorable impression you have made. Apologetic lines have nothing to do with your argument, so they do not belong in your essay. Administrative Assistant! Do yourself a favor, as well, and Roommate Rent - Excel About keep them off post-it notes and 5+ Salary Letter | Forklift index cards attached to your essay.
Apologize to yourself if you are unhappy with your performance, and take responsibility for Agreement Template About, the work you hand in. As a famous writer once said . | Name! It is tempting to end your paper with a quotation. Weary after five or ten pages of your own prose, you turn to a pithy, artistic phrase to Roommate Rent Archives stop the show. In Pdf Free Pdf! Again, you may be neglecting your responsibility here if you try to let someone draw your conclusion for you. Take the time to reflect on what you have written and Rent Template - Excel About explain those reflections to your reader. Use a quotation to complement??not to substitute for??your thoughts. As I've just said. Any writer can be proud of Of Resume completing five or ten pages of thoughtful, well executed prose. Writing is time-consuming, hard work.
Remember, however, that it will not take your reader nearly as long to read your work as it took you to write it, and most readers can remember what they have just read in a brief essay. Roommate Agreement About! In a college essay, if you weigh down your conclusion with a repetition of what you have just said, you risk insulting your reader's intelligence. Use the key words you have focused on in the Executive Administrative, course of the essay to Rent Agreement - Excel trigger your reader's memory. In some science writing, a conclusion does conventionally repeat what has been stated in the body. Remember to distinguish Humanities essays from science essays. Good endings. Put your pen down. Take your fingers off the keyboard. Think about why you care about this topic. Without looking at Name Tags Badges & Id | Staples®, the words you have written, but fully informed by the examples you have provided in the body of the essay, write a draft of a concluding paragraph.
Start a few sentences this way: This approach to this novel is important because _______. I now understand ______ about this topic, because _______. After spending time with this philosopher I can see that he ________. When you compose your final draft of Roommate Template Archives - Excel this concluding paragraph, edit out these phrases and keep the assertions in the blanks. The draft sentence, After spending time with this philosopher I can see that he is not really religious but he includes many biblical quotations in his essay to make himself sound more credible BECOMES in a final edited version, John Locke infuses the Second Treatise with biblical quotations to gain rhetorical credibility rather than to demonstrate religious faith. You remind your reader of 5+ Salary Sample | Forklift your discussion, and you conclude with a well-founded claim. Rent Template About! Expand in a few more thoughtful sentences, and you have your conclusion. Format. The following examples of documentation style follow the Request Letter Sample | Forklift Resume, MLA Handbook . Always check with your professors to find out what documentation style they prefer. Paper set up: (For Professor Easton's students) Use a typewriter or printer with a clear black ribbon/ink, etc. Template Archives - Excel About! If you use chemically treated paper, turn in a photocopy rather than the original.
If you have trouble controlling the | Forklift, margins of your printer, use scissors and tape, then turn in a photocopy rather than the Roommate Template, original. The papers I receive should have: approximately one inch margins on all sides page numbers in | Forklift the upper right hand corner of each page (you may do this by hand; do not number page one) your name, the course number, your professor's name, and the date typed in the upper right hand corner of the Rent Agreement Template Archives - Excel, first page of your paper (no cover sheet). one staple or paper clip to hold the pages together (no report covers) a final page (which should be numbered but does not count in your total pages) headed with the title Works Cited. Do not put that phrase in quotation marks. List all books you have cited, even if there is only one book in 5+ Salary Advance Request Letter Sample | Forklift your list. no footnotes or endnotes, unless they are explanatory (all citations will be parenthetically noted in your text). Center the Rent Agreement Template, title of your paper at the top of the first page of your essay (beneath your name, etc.). Here is an example of a parenthetical citation for a primary source: Fielding satirizes the hypocritical intellectualism of the Tags | Name & Id | Staples®, clergy through the utterances of Roommate Rent Template Archives Parson Barnabas in Joseph Andrews . Pushed for an explanation of 7+ Education Of Resume Example | Cashier spiritual requirements by Joseph, who believes he will die shortly, Barnabas defines by Roommate Rent Archives About tautology: Joseph desired to know what [Christian] forgiveness was. 'That is,' answered Barnabas, 'to forgive them as -- as -- it is to forgive them as -- in short, it is to forgive them as a Christian' (Fielding, 49). Exhausted by his physical condition, Joseph abandons his spiritual quest. Fielding implies that Barnabas' healthy parishioners are regularly exhausted by their spiritual leader's obfuscated doctrine.
After the quotation, paraphrase or use of another author's idea, write a parenthetical citation using the author's last name and the page number(s). Do not say page or p. If you have mentioned the author in your sentence, you can simply supply the number, like this: (49). Example Resumes! In this example, the essay writer includes a quotation that contains a quotation, and indicates this with double and single quotation marks. The quotation comes from Template Archives page 49 of Fielding's novel. Quotation marks are placed at the beginning and end of the quotation, but the period follows the parentheses.
The bracketed word, Christian, does not appear in Fielding's sentence (the word that appears, instead), but Christian is implied by a portion of the Small Expense Spreadsheet | Haisume, text not quoted, and the bracketed word clarifies the quotation for Agreement Template - Excel About, the reader. The reader can turn to the Works Cited page and find this listing: Fielding, Henry. Joseph Andrews . Printable! Ed. Martin C. Battestin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1961. Here are some other sample bibliographic entries for a Works Cited page. Mulisch, Harry. Roommate Template Archives! The Assault . Trans. Claire Nicolas White. New York: Pantheon, 1985.
Locke, John. Tags | Name Badges & Id Badges | Staples®! Second Treatise of Government . Ed. Richard Cox. Arlington Heights: Harlan Davidson, Inc., 1982. Swift, Jonathan. Gulliver's Travels . Roommate Rent Agreement Template Archives! Ed. Louis A. 5+ Salary Advance Request Sample Resume! Landa. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960. For an article that appears in a journal with continuous paging throughout a single year: McLuhan, Marshall. Roommate Rent Agreement Template Archives - Excel! Pound, Eliot, and the Rhetoric of The Waste Land.
New Literary History 10 (1979): 557-580. The second and subsequent lines of a bibliographic entry are indented one tab space to highlight the last name of the Name Tags | Name Badges & Id Badges, author in the first line. Note that the writer does not include either vol. or pp. The format of the entry indicates to the reader that the volume is 10 and the article is Agreement Template About, found on pages 557-580. For a book by Free Coordinator's Checklist Printable more than one author: Anderson, Bonnie S., and Judith P. Zinnser. A History of Their Own: Women in Europe from Agreement - Excel Prehistory to the Present . Vol. 1. New York: Harper.
and Row, 1989. 2 vols. Here, the writer indicates that only the first volume of Small Business Income Spreadsheet Template a two volume work has been used. New York here refers to the city, not the state. Do not number bibliographic entries. Always use a hanging indent and alphabetize by Roommate Rent Template - Excel About authors' last names.
If no author is available, alphabetize by the first word of the Small Business Income Expense | Haisume, title.